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Specialty Medicine > Larynx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larynx Deck (70):
1

What are the arytenoids?

Cartilaginous structures that surround the opening of the trachea, and adjust the vocal cords

2

What are the changes that occur with viral laryngitis?

Free edges become swollen

3

What causes vocal cord polyps?

Irritation of the vocal cords, causing a blood vessel inflammatory reaction which forms a polyp

4

True or false: vocal cord polyps are usually bilateral

False--unilateral

5

Are vocal cord polyps usually a slow onset or acute onset?

Acute

6

What is the treatment for vocal cord polyps?

Surgery

7

What is polypoid corditis?

Many polyps that cover the vocal cords

8

What are the causes of polypoid corditis?

-Reflux
-Smoking
-Talker

9

What is the treatment for polypoid corditis?

Surgery

10

What is the recurrence rate of polypoid corditis?

Very low

11

What are the issues with polypoid corditis?

Trouble breathing, and speaking

12

What are traumatic granulomas?

chronic irritation of the vocal cords causes a granulation tissue to form, which will eventually turn into a scar

13

What are the signs of acid reflux?

-Postcricoid and interarytenoid edema
-Thickening of the skin
-Reinke's edema

14

What is Reinke's edema?

Edema of the tissue beneath the vocal cords that causes vocal cord swelling

15

What is the treatment for early onset traumatic granuloma?

Steroids and reflux control can reverse the process

16

What is the point where surgery is absolutely indicated for traumatic granulomas?

If the granulation tissue becomes fibrotic

17

When should the vocal cords be visualized after intubation?

If hoarseness persists after 10 ish days

18

What are vocal cord nodules?

callouses of the vocal cords d/t repetitive motion and irritation

19

True or false: vocal cord nodules are almost always bilateral and symmetrical

True

20

What causes vocal cord nodules?

Rubbing of the vocal cords against each other causes chronic irritation

21

What usually causes vocal cord nodules?

-Acid reflux causes inflammation of the vocal cords

22

True or false: almost all patients who have reflux in the trachea have heartburn

False

23

What are the s/sx of vocal cord nodules?

-Quality of voice affected
-bolus/ chronic throat clearing

24

What is the treatment for vocal cord nodules?

-Reflux management
-Voice therapy for vocal hygiene
-NOT surgical

25

True or false: vocal cord nodules are a surgical fix

False

26

True or false: with appropriate treatment, vocal cord nodules usually diappear

True

27

True or false: laryngeal cancer is incurable

False--very curable when caught in the early stages

28

Smokers with a new onset of hoarseness always need to be evaluated for what?

Laryngeal cancer

29

What is the focus of treatment for laryngeal cancer?

Laryngeal preservation if possible

30

What is the treatment for laryngeal cancer?

Surgery, often combined with local XRT

31

True or false: laryngeal cancer tends to metastasize early

False--not until late in the disease course

32

True or false: laryngeal cancer is a smoker's disease

true, for the most part

33

What causes pachyderm larynx?

Acid reflux

34

True or false: even a small amount of vocal fold edema can have a dramatic impact of vocal quality

True

35

True or false: swelling of the vocal cords must occur to have acid reflux causing edema

False

36

What are the s/sx of reflux laryngitis? (4)

-Dysphonia
-Globus
-Throat clearing
-Chronic cough

37

How common is reflux laryngitis?

Very

38

True or false: patients with reflux laryngitis often lack the heartburn or regurg sensation

True

39

What is the treatment for reflux laryngitis?

-Lifestyle modifications
-PPIs

40

What are the drinks that lead to reflux laryngitis?

-Coffee
-Spicy foods
-Orange juice

41

Do patients need to be on PPIs for life with reflux laryngitis?

Not usually

42

Child with a smoker's voice = ?

Chronic reflux laryngitis

43

2 year old diagnosed with asthma = ?

Acid relfux

44

True or false: most kids who have reflux laryngitis will outgrow it

True

45

What is the treatment for reflux laryngitis in kids?

-PPIs
-Voice therapy

46

Laryngomalacia is more common in which gender?

Males

47

What are the usual s/sx of laryngomalacia?

-Hoarse cry
-Inspiratory stridor when upset

48

True or false: laryngomalacia is usually self limited

True

49

What are the signs of tracheomalacia?

-Folding of the arytenoids
-Curling of the epiglottis

50

Why inspiratory stridor with laryngomalacia?

Arytenoids are sucked in when breathing in

51

When does laryngomalacia usually present?

1st or 2nd month of life

52

True or false; there is a strong relationship of laryngomalacia with reflux disease

True

53

True or false: surgery is often indicated for laryngomalacia

False--very rare. For children who are fail to thrive

54

What type of stridor is had with laryngomalacia (inspiratory or expiratory)?

Inspiratory

55

How common is vocal cord dysfunction?

Very common

56

What are the s/sx of vocal cord dysfunction?

-Inspiratory stridor
-cough
-Variant asthma
-PVC motion

57

What are the causes of vocal cord dysfunction?

External irritants

58

Blunted inspiratory loop = ?

External obstruction

59

What is the treatment for vocal cord dysfunction?

-Control irritants
-Speech therapy
-Reflux control

60

What is the nerve that controls the vocal cord?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

61

What are the symptoms of one vocal cord impairment?

Sudden onset Hoarse, breathy voice

62

What causes vocal cord paralysis? Prognosis?

-Viral inflammation of the nerve
-Self limited

63

The recurrent laryngeal nerve is a branch of what nerve?

CN X

64

What are the s/sx of bilateral vocal cord paralysis?

Voice is fine, but cannot breathe

65

What are the effects of vocal cord hemorrhages?

Edema, but unless professional voice user, not much lasting effects

66

What is the treatment for a vocal cord hemorrhage?

Self limiting, but can give steroids to prevent inflammatory changes

67

Who usually gets laryngeal papillomas?

Children

68

What causes laryngeal cysts?

The glands of the larynx gets inflamed

69

What is the treatment for vocal cord candidiasis?

Oral antifungals

70

What are the signs of vocal cord leukoplakia?

White patch of Leukoplakia on the vocal cords