Flashcards in Skin Terminology and exam Deck (88):
What are some aspects of the history taking that are specific to derm complaints?
-How has it spread
-How have lesions changed
What are the components of the atopic triad?
What are the family history bits that should be obtained with derm complaints?
What are the major indications for a total body skin exam?
-personal h/o skin CA
-Increased risk for malignancy
-f/u for extensive skin lesions
What should be done besides just inspecting a skin lesion?
What are the five major characteristics that should be used to describe a skin lesion?
Are scratches or trauma skin lesions primary or secondary?
What is the definition of a macule?
Flat, Less than or equal to 1 cm
What is the definition of a patch?
flat, More than 1 cm
What is a papule?
raised solid lesion measuring less than or equal to 1 cm
What is a nodule?
raised solid lesion measuring more than 1 cm
What is a tumor?
raised solid lesion measuring more than 2 cm
What is a plaque?
Flat topped area measuring more than 1 cm
What are vesicles?
Raised, clear fluid filled lesion, measuring less than or equal to 1 cm
What is a bullae?
Raised, clear fluid filled lesion, measuring more than 1 cm
What is a pustule?
Raised lesion filled with white fluid or pus
What are wheals? how long do they usually last for?
Round or flat topped edematous and erythematous lesions that last less than 48 hours
What are telangiectasias?
Enlarged, superficial blood vessels
Are telangiectasias blanchable? Why or why not?
Yes--blood is still in vessels, so can move about
Are purpura blanchable? Why or why not?
No--blood is sequestered
What is the difference between an erosion and a ulcer?
-Erosion = loss of epidermis in skin and heals without a scar
-Ulcers = epidermis and dermis is involved
What are scales?
flakes or plates of skin come off
What are crusts?
Dried plasma or exudate
What are excoriations?
Traumatized or abraded areas d/t rubbing
What is atrophy of the skin?
Thinning or absence of epidermis or SQ fat
What are scars?
Fibrosis of skin
What are keloids?
Exaggerated scars beyond wound edges
What are eschars?
Plaque covering ulcer--implies extensive damage and necrosis
What is the difference between a hypertrophic scar and a keloid?
Keloid goes beyond wound edges
What are petechiae?
1-2 mm purplish/ reddish macules that are NOT blanchable
What are purpura?
3mm - 1 cm urplish/ reddish macules that are NOT blanchable
What are ecchymoses?
Purplish or reddish area greater than 1 cm
Areas of hypopigmented macules and patches after sunlight exposure = ?
Tinea versicolor by malassezia furfur
How do you diagnose tinea versicolor?
-Wood light will show an orange-yellow hue
-KOH prep will show spaghetti and meatballs appearance
KOH prep showing a spaghetti and meatballs appearance = ?
What is the treatment for tinea versicolor?
Ketoconazole or topical antifungals
What is the MOA of topical steroids?
inhibits NF-kappaB, which suppresses both B and T cell function
-Lowers cytokine transcription
What are the side effects of topical administration of steroids?
What hematological abnormality can steroids produce?
demargination of PMNs
What is the use of class I steroids?
-NON facial and NON intertriginous areas
What is the length of treatment for class I, classes II-V, and classes Vi-VII?
I = less than 3 weeks
II-V = less than 8 weeks
VI-VII = 1-2 week intervals
What are the areas that you should NOT apply class I steroids to?
Face or intertriginous areas
What is the use of class II-V steroids?
Mild to moderate non facial and non intertriginous areas
What is the use for classes VI-VII steroids?
large areas, including intertriginous areas and face
What class of steroid is: clobetasol propionate?
Super high (class I)
What class of steroid is: Fluocinonide?
What class of steroid is: Triamcinolone?
III - V
What class of steroid is: hydrocortisone
What class of steroid is: desonide
VI - VII
What class of steroid is: Fluocinolone acetonide?
True or false: no matter the vehicle, the same medication will have the same potency
What is the major upside and downside to the use of gels as a vehicle?
+ = Stays where you put it
- = EtOH is irritating
What is the major upside and downside to the use of foams as a vehicle?
+ = Easy to apply and spread rapidly
- = expensive
What is the major upside and downside to the use of oils as a vehicle?
+ = Less stinging
- = Messy
What is the major benefit to ointments as a vehicle?
What is the use of benzoyl peroxide? Downsides?
What is the major benefit of retinoids?
What is the classic side effect of isotretinoin?
What is the MOA of azoles? Are these fungistatic or fungicidal?
Inhibits 14-alpha demethylase to prevent the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol--an essential component of the fungal membrane
What is the MOA of allylamines? Suffix?
-Inhibit squalene epoxidase
-terbinafine, naftifine etc
What type of fungal infections are allylamines better suited for?
Dermatophytes more than candida
What type of fungal infections are polyenes better suited for?
What is the MOA of polyenes? Examples?
-bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and thus weakens it, causing leakage of K+ and Na+ ions, which may contribute to fungal cell death
-Amp B and nystatin
What are the major side effects of imidazoles?
What are the major side effects of allylamines?
What is the MOA of echinocandins? Names?
Inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase and are thus called "penicillin of antifungals
What is the effect of azoles on p450 system?
What are the histamine receptors that are inhibited to cause sleepiness? Suppress HCl production?
H1 = sleep
H2 = antacid
What are the major side effects of first generation antihistamines?
Dry and wobbly
"Some drugs create awesome knockers" = ?
First of second generation antihistamine: diphenhydramine
First of second generation antihistamine: cetirizine
First of second generation antihistamine: hydroxyzine
First of second generation antihistamine: chlorpheniramine
First of second generation antihistamine: loratidine
First of second generation antihistamine: Fexofenadine
What are the two major H2 antagonists used in the treatment of GERD?
What are the three major medications that can be used for psoriasis?
Vit D analogues
What is calcitriol (D2 or D3)?
What are the three major antibodies that are found with SLE?
What is the antibody that is found with drug induced SLE?
What is antiphospholipid antibody syndrome?
an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia.
What are the top three causes of death in SLE pts?
3. Renal disease
What are the three general drugs used to treat SLE?
What are the complement levels that are low in SLE?
What are the components of the RASH OR PAIN mnemonic for the signs of SLE?
-Renal disease / Raynaud's
What are the drugs that cause SLE? (SHIPPE)