Skin Terminology and exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Skin Terminology and exam Deck (88):
1

What are some aspects of the history taking that are specific to derm complaints?

-How has it spread
-How have lesions changed

2

What are the components of the atopic triad?

-Asthma
-Allergies
-Atopic Dermatitis

3

What are the family history bits that should be obtained with derm complaints?

Skin CA
Autoimmune conditions

4

What are the major indications for a total body skin exam?

-personal h/o skin CA
-Increased risk for malignancy
-new rash
-f/u for extensive skin lesions

5

What should be done besides just inspecting a skin lesion?

Palpate it

6

What are the five major characteristics that should be used to describe a skin lesion?

-Palpability
-Color
-texture
-Size
-Location

7

Are scratches or trauma skin lesions primary or secondary?

secondary

8

What is the definition of a macule?

Flat, Less than or equal to 1 cm

9

What is the definition of a patch?

flat, More than 1 cm

10

What is a papule?

raised solid lesion measuring less than or equal to 1 cm

11

What is a nodule?

raised solid lesion measuring more than 1 cm

12

What is a tumor?

raised solid lesion measuring more than 2 cm

13

What is a plaque?

Flat topped area measuring more than 1 cm

14

What are vesicles?

Raised, clear fluid filled lesion, measuring less than or equal to 1 cm

15

What is a bullae?

Raised, clear fluid filled lesion, measuring more than 1 cm

16

What is a pustule?

Raised lesion filled with white fluid or pus

17

What are wheals? how long do they usually last for?

Round or flat topped edematous and erythematous lesions that last less than 48 hours

18

What are telangiectasias?

Enlarged, superficial blood vessels

19

Are telangiectasias blanchable? Why or why not?

Yes--blood is still in vessels, so can move about

20

Are purpura blanchable? Why or why not?

No--blood is sequestered

21

What is the difference between an erosion and a ulcer?

-Erosion = loss of epidermis in skin and heals without a scar
-Ulcers = epidermis and dermis is involved

22

What are scales?

flakes or plates of skin come off

23

What are crusts?

Dried plasma or exudate

24

What are excoriations?

Traumatized or abraded areas d/t rubbing

25

What is atrophy of the skin?

Thinning or absence of epidermis or SQ fat

26

What are scars?

Fibrosis of skin

27

What are keloids?

Exaggerated scars beyond wound edges

28

What are eschars?

Plaque covering ulcer--implies extensive damage and necrosis

29

What is the difference between a hypertrophic scar and a keloid?

Keloid goes beyond wound edges

30

What are petechiae?

1-2 mm purplish/ reddish macules that are NOT blanchable

31

What are purpura?

3mm - 1 cm urplish/ reddish macules that are NOT blanchable

32

What are ecchymoses?

Purplish or reddish area greater than 1 cm

33

Areas of hypopigmented macules and patches after sunlight exposure = ?

Tinea versicolor by malassezia furfur

34

How do you diagnose tinea versicolor?

-Wood light will show an orange-yellow hue
-KOH prep will show spaghetti and meatballs appearance

35

KOH prep showing a spaghetti and meatballs appearance = ?

Malassezia furfur

36

What is the treatment for tinea versicolor?

Ketoconazole or topical antifungals

37

What is the MOA of topical steroids?

inhibits NF-kappaB, which suppresses both B and T cell function
-Lowers cytokine transcription

38

What are the side effects of topical administration of steroids?

-skin atrophy
-Telangiectasias
-Striae
-Acne

39

What hematological abnormality can steroids produce?

demargination of PMNs

40

What is the use of class I steroids?

-Severe dermatoses
-NON facial and NON intertriginous areas

41

What is the length of treatment for class I, classes II-V, and classes Vi-VII?

I = less than 3 weeks
II-V = less than 8 weeks
VI-VII = 1-2 week intervals

42

What are the areas that you should NOT apply class I steroids to?

Face or intertriginous areas

43

What is the use of class II-V steroids?

Mild to moderate non facial and non intertriginous areas

44

What is the use for classes VI-VII steroids?

large areas, including intertriginous areas and face

45

What class of steroid is: clobetasol propionate?

Super high (class I)

46

What class of steroid is: Fluocinonide?

II

47

What class of steroid is: Triamcinolone?

III - V

48

What class of steroid is: hydrocortisone

VI-VII

49

What class of steroid is: desonide

VI - VII

50

What class of steroid is: Fluocinolone acetonide?

VI-VII

51

True or false: no matter the vehicle, the same medication will have the same potency

False

52

What is the major upside and downside to the use of gels as a vehicle?

+ = Stays where you put it
- = EtOH is irritating

53

What is the major upside and downside to the use of foams as a vehicle?

+ = Easy to apply and spread rapidly

- = expensive

54

What is the major upside and downside to the use of oils as a vehicle?

+ = Less stinging
- = Messy

55

What is the major benefit to ointments as a vehicle?

Protective barrier

56

What is the use of benzoyl peroxide? Downsides?

Acne
Stain pillows

57

What is the major benefit of retinoids?

keratinolytic

58

What is the classic side effect of isotretinoin?

Teratogenic

59

What is the MOA of azoles? Are these fungistatic or fungicidal?

Inhibits 14-alpha demethylase to prevent the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol--an essential component of the fungal membrane

Fungistatic

60

What is the MOA of allylamines? Suffix?

-Inhibit squalene epoxidase
-terbinafine, naftifine etc

61

What type of fungal infections are allylamines better suited for?

Dermatophytes more than candida

62

What type of fungal infections are polyenes better suited for?

candida

63

What is the MOA of polyenes? Examples?

-bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane and thus weakens it, causing leakage of K+ and Na+ ions, which may contribute to fungal cell death
-Amp B and nystatin

64

What are the major side effects of imidazoles?

Antiandrogen
-Hepatotoxic

65

What are the major side effects of allylamines?

hepatotoxic
HA
GI effects

66

What is the MOA of echinocandins? Names?

Inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, via noncompetitive inhibition of the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase[1][2] and are thus called "penicillin of antifungals

-caspofungin

67

What is the effect of azoles on p450 system?

Inhibits

68

What are the histamine receptors that are inhibited to cause sleepiness? Suppress HCl production?

H1 = sleep
H2 = antacid

69

What are the major side effects of first generation antihistamines?

Dry and wobbly

70

"Some drugs create awesome knockers" = ?

-Spironolactone
-Digitalis
-Cimetidine
-Alcohol
-Ketoconazole

71

First of second generation antihistamine: diphenhydramine

First

72

First of second generation antihistamine: cetirizine

Second

73

First of second generation antihistamine: hydroxyzine

First

74

First of second generation antihistamine: chlorpheniramine

First

75

First of second generation antihistamine: loratidine

Second

76

First of second generation antihistamine: Fexofenadine

Second

77

What are the two major H2 antagonists used in the treatment of GERD?

Ranitidine
Cimetidine

78

What are the three major medications that can be used for psoriasis?

Coal tar
Tazarotene
Vit D analogues

79

What is calcitriol (D2 or D3)?

D3

80

What are the three major antibodies that are found with SLE?

Smith
dsDNA
ANA

81

What is the antibody that is found with drug induced SLE?

Antihistone

82

What is antiphospholipid antibody syndrome?

an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. APS provokes blood clots (thrombosis) in both arteries and veins as well as pregnancy-related complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and severe preeclampsia.

83

What are the top three causes of death in SLE pts?

1. CV
2. Infection
3. Renal disease

84

What are the three general drugs used to treat SLE?

NSAIDS
Immunosuppressants
Steroids

85

What are the complement levels that are low in SLE?

C3
C4
CH50

86

What are the components of the RASH OR PAIN mnemonic for the signs of SLE?

-Rash
-Arthritis
-Soft tissue/serositis
-Heme disorders
-Oral/nasopharyngeal ulcers
-Renal disease / Raynaud's
-Photosensitivity
-ANA abs
-Immunosuppressants
-Neuro disorders

87

What are the drugs that cause SLE? (SHIPPE)

-Sulfa
-Hydralazine
-INH
-Phenytoin
-Procainamide
-Etanercept

88

What are the sulfa drugs? ("poplar FACTSSS")?

Probenecid
Furosemide
Acetazolamide
Celecoxib
Thiazide
Sulfonamides
Sulfasalazine
Sulfonylureas