Pediatric Dermatology Flashcards Preview

Specialty Medicine > Pediatric Dermatology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pediatric Dermatology Deck (54):
1

What are salmon patches?

Light red macules found on the nape of the neck, eyelids, philtrum, and glabella

2

What is the prognosis for salmon patches?

fade with time in most cases, but if found on the nape of the neck, may persist

3

What is cutis aplasia? How does it appear?

-a congenital focal absence of epidermis with or without evidence of other layers of the skin
-Appears as a sharply marginated area, that is usually seen in the midline of the scalp

4

True or false: cutis aplasia is not usually an isolated defect--part of a syndrome

False--usually isolated defect

5

What is the treatment for cutis aplasia?

Excision, but larger ones may need hair transplant

6

What is the prognosis for dermal melanocytosis?

Fades within a few years

7

Which ethnicities are more commonly affected with dermal melanocytosis?

Blacks
Asians
Hispanics

8

What are the associations with ear anomalies?

-Hearing loss
-vertebral /cardiac / renal abnormalities
-Branchial fistulas

9

True or false: most of the time, ear anomalies are isolated defects

True

10

What is the treatment for a preauricular skin tag?

Ligate with suture if no pain. O/w ligate later by derm

11

What is erythema toxicum neonatorum? Prognosis?

-Blotchy, erythematous macules in 2-3 cm in diameter, with central vesicle or pustule
-Benign, usually resolving by 2 weeks

12

What will a gram stain show of scraping of erythema toxicum neonatorum?

Eosinophils

13

What areas of the body are and are not affected with erythema toxicum neonatorum?

Arms and legs affected, but spares the palms and soles

14

What are transient neonatal pustular melanosis? Prognosis?

Vesicles or pustules with a collarette of surrounding scales or pigmented macules

15

Which is present at birth erythema toxicum neonatorum, or transient neonatal pustular melanosis?

transient neonatal pustular melanosis

16

What ethnicity has a higher incidence of transient neonatal pustular melanosis?

Blacks

17

What will a smear of transient neonatal pustular melanosis show?

PMNs

18

What is the difference in distribution between transient neonatal pustular melanosis and erythema toxicum?

transient neonatal pustular melanosis affects the palms and soles while erythema toxicum does not

19

What are milia?

Benign white papules found on the nose or forehead of babies

20

What are sucking blisters?

Blisters on the arm of a neonate that is from sucking on the arm in utero

21

What is acne neonatorum? Prognosis?

-Multiple discrete *papules* that occurs around 6 weeks of age, and disappear before 8 months
-No correlation between this and teenager acne

22

What is another name for acne neonatorum?

Neonatal cephalic pustulosis

23

What are the three different morphologies of acne vulgaris?

-Comedonal
-Inflammatory
-Mixed

24

What is the comeonal form of acne vulgaris?

with closed (white) and open (blackhead) comedones

25

What is the inflammatory form of acne vulgaris?

With erythematous papules, nodules, or cyst like nodular lesions d/t colonization with p acnes

26

What is the bacteria that causes acne?

Propionibacterium acnes

27

What are the factors that lead to neonatal acne?

-Increased sebum production
-Abnormal keratinization

28

Why treat acne?

Scarring
Psych

29

What are the goals of treating acne? (3)

-Reduce sebum production
-Suppress P acnes
-Reducing inflammation

30

What is the hygiene changes that is used to treat acne?

wash several times a day, but not so often as to cause dry skin (which will worsen the condition)

31

What is the role of makeup with acne?

Has not been shown to change acne

32

What is the pharmacotherapy for acne?

-Benzoyl peroxide
-Topical retinoid
-Topical Abx

33

What is the MOA of retinoids?

Activate RXR, causing comedolytic response

34

What is the MOA of benzoyl peroxide?

Penetrates stratum corneum and ROS

35

Why are topical abx not recommended as monotherapy for acne?

Slow onset of action, and predictable emergence of resistance

36

How effective are topical abx in treating acne

Very

37

When are oral abx indicated for acne? What are the abx of choice?

Moderate to severe acne
-2nd gen tetracyclines

38

What are the side effects from tetracycline?

Tooth discoloration
Photosensitivity

39

What is the treatment for *mild* acne? What is there is an inadequate response to this?

Benzoyl peroxide or topical retinoids
OR
Triple therapy


-Change formulations

40

What is the treatment for *moderate* acne? What is there is an inadequate response to this?

Topical x2 OR all three


Oral isotretinoin or abx

41

What is the defect in Sturge-Weber syndrome? Mnemonic?

-Somatic activation of the GNAQ gene

Sporadic with port wine Stain
Tram track appearance
Unilateral
Retardation
Glaucoma/ GNAQ gene
Epilepsy

42

What is the HAMARTOMASS mnemonic for tuberous sclerosis?

-Hamartomas
-Angiofibromas
-Mitral regurg
-Ash-Leaf spots
-Rhabdomyomas / renal cysts
-Tuberous sclerosis
-autosomal dOminant
-MR
-Angiomyolipomas
-Szs
-Shagreen patches

43

What are the skin findings of port wine stains?

Deep red macules on the face or extremities

44

Where is the port wine stain located with Sturge weber syndrome?

CN V1

45

What are cafe au lait spots?

Macules or patches with distinct borders that are benign, but if more than 5, consider NF1

46

What are the components of tje CAFE SPOT mnemonic for NF1?

Cafe au lait spots
Axillary/inguinal freckling
Fibromas
Eye (lisch nodules)

SPhenoid dysplasia
Optic Tumor

47

How many cafe au lait spots, and how big, is diagnostic for NF1?

6+ that are greater than 5 mm in children of 15 mm in adults

48

What are the characteristics of the Ash leaf spots with tuberous sclerosis?

2+ macule that ranges from 0.1 to 12 cm in size

49

Cardiac rhabdomyoma is almost pathognomonic for what disease?

Tuberous sclerosis

50

What are shagreen patches, and what disease are they found in?

Bumpy skin found in tuberous sclerosis

51

What is the inheritance pattern of tuberous sclerosis?

AD

52

What type of sunscreen should be used for kids under 6 months?

none--keep baby out of sunlight and use caps

53

What type of sunscreen should be used for kids over 6 months?

SPF 15 or better
Reapply q2 hours

54

What time of day is the highest chance of sunburn?

1000-1600