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Flashcards in Function Words 2 Tener Deck (130)
1

Fork; Holder of stocks
n.

Noun:
tenedor m fork
tenedor m holder (of stocks)

2

(=considerarse) to have an opinion about oneself

: he thinks himself very clever

(=considerarse) to have an opinion about oneself

se tiene por muy listo: he thinks himself very clever

3

(=poseer ciertas características) to have, to be

(=pasar por una experiencia) to have (an accident, a birthday)

(=actuar de una manera, comportarse de cierta forma) to behave, to be (more careful, more respectful, etc.)

Pronominal:
(=sostenerse algo con otra cosa) to stand upright, to stand firm

(=poseer ciertas características) to have, to be

(=pasar por una experiencia) to have (an accident, a birthday)

(=actuar de una manera, comportarse de cierta forma) to behave, to be (more careful, more respectful, etc.)

Pronominal:
(=sostenerse algo con otra cosa) to stand upright, to stand firm

4

+ que + INF (=reprochar algo a alguien) should have done something

! you should have called!

+ que + INF (=reprochar algo a alguien) should have done something

¡tendrías que haber llamado! you should have called!

5

(=estar obligado a hacer algo) to have to do something
+ que + INF (=contar con una probabilidad) must

: you must be very tired after that long trip

(=estar obligado a hacer algo) to have to do something
+ que + INF (=contar con una probabilidad) must

tienes que estar muy cansado luego del largo viaje: you must be very tired after that long trip

6

(=sostener algo entre las manos, tomar algo) to hold, to take

(=recibir u obtener algo) to receive, to get

(=pensar o considerar algo) to see, to consider something
: to see fit to do something

(=sostener algo entre las manos, tomar algo) to hold, to take

(=recibir u obtener algo) to receive, to get

(=pensar o considerar algo) to see, to consider something
tener a bien hacer algo: to see fit to do something

7

(=padecer o sufrir algo) to have

: I've had a lot of accidents in my life

(=padecer o sufrir algo) to have

he tenido muchos accidentes en mi vida: I've had a lot of accidents in my life

8

(=sentir hambre, calor, frió, etc.) to be

: I'm hungry

(=sentir hambre, calor, frió, etc.) to be

tengo hambre: I'm hungry

9

(=dar a luz un bebé) to have, to give birth to a baby

(=medir) to be (size)

: it is 5 cm wide

(=dar a luz un bebé) to have, to give birth to a baby

(=medir) to be (size)

tiene 5 cm de ancho: it is 5 cm wide

10

(=poseer una ocupación, obligación o actividad) to have

: I have karate lessons at eight

(=poseer una ocupación, obligación o actividad) to have

tengo clases de karate a las ocho: I have karate lessons at eight

11

(=contar con una determinada cantidad de años) to be (age)
? how old are you?

(=contar con una determinada cantidad de años) to be (age)
¿cuántos años tienes? how old are you?

12

Transitive:
(=poseer algo o ser propietario de algo) to have, to have got, to own

: to hold all the winning cards
: to have sex
: to be successful

Transitive:
(=poseer algo o ser propietario de algo) to have, to have got, to own

tener todas las de ganar: to hold all the winning cards
tener relaciones sexuales: to have sex
tener éxito: to be successful

13

· ¡ ! / ¡ lo !, so, there you are!

· ¿ ?, fam so that's how it is, that's the way things are.

· ¡ahí tienes! / ¡ahí lo tienes!, so, there you are!

· ¿con que ésas tenemos?, fam so that's how it is, that's the way things are.

14

Imperativo:
— no "yo"
ten; ??
no tengas ??
tened; ??
tenga: ??
tengamos:
tengan:

Imperativo:
— no "yo"
ten; ??
no tengas ??
tened; ??
tenga: ??
tengamos:
tengan:

15

Pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo 2:
hubiese tenido:
hubieses tenido:
hubiese tenido:
hubiésemos tenido:
hubiesen tenido:

Pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo 2:
hubiese tenido:
hubieses tenido:
hubiese tenido:
hubiésemos tenido:
hubiesen tenido:

16

Pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo 1:
hubiera tenido:
hubieras tenido:
hubiera tenido:
hubiéramos tenido:
hubieran tenido:

past perfect
synonyms: pretérito pluscuamperfecto
definitions: A perfective tense used to express action completed in the past.
Pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo 1:
hubiera tenido:
hubieras tenido:
hubiera tenido:
hubiéramos tenido:
hubieran tenido:

17

Perfecto de subjuntivo:

haya tenido:
hayas tenido:
haya tenido:
hayamos tenido:
hayan tenido:

Perfecto de subjuntivo: (subjunctive: A mood that represent an act or state (not as a fact but) as contingent or possible.)
haya tenido:
hayas tenido:
haya tenido:
hayamos tenido:
hayan tenido:

18

Potencial compuesto:
habría tenido:
habrías tenido:
habría tenido:
habríamos tenido:
habrían tenido:

Potencial compuesto:
habría tenido:
habrías tenido:
habría tenido:
habríamos tenido:
habrían tenido:

19

Futuro perfecto:
habré tenido:
habrás tenido:
habrá tenido:
habremos tenido:
habrán tenido:

Futuro perfecto:
habré tenido:
habrás tenido:
habrá tenido:
habremos tenido:
habrán tenido:
Futuro
Future
When To Use

The Future tense in Spanish is used to describe what will happen. In English the basic translation uses the word will:

Iré a la iglesia el domingo.
I will go to church on Sunday.
Estudiará arquitectura cuando sea grande.
She will study architecture when she grows up.
The future tense expresses wonder about something in the present.

¿De quien será esta lapicera?
I wonder whose pen it is.
¿Será mi nieta la que llama a la puerta?
Is my granddaughter at the door?
The future can additionally be used to express probability about something in the present.

Estará comprando la cena
He is probably buying dinner.
Vendrá en auto.
She is probably coming by car.
The Future tense is used for:
what will happen
wonder about something in the present
probability about something in the present
Conjugation

To form the future of regular verbs in Spanish, add the following endings to the infinitive.

Regular verbs
—é —emos
—ás —éis
—á —án
For example:

Viajar

viajaré viajaremos
viajarás viajaréis
viajará viajarán
Rules

Most of the time when a question in English starts with will, it is a polite request. Often, this request is accompanied with please. A polite request using will is not the future tense in either language. To express willingness to do something, use the verb "querer".

¿Quieres venir?
Will you come?, Will you please come?, Do you want to come?
¿Quieres bailar conmigo?
Will you dance with me?, Will you please dance with me?, Do you want to dance with me?
Another way to translate such a request uses the Conditional tense.

¿Te gustaría venir?
Would you come?, Would you please come?, Would you like to come?
¿Te gustaría bailar conmigo?
Would you dance with me?, Would you please dance with me?, Would you like to dance with me?
Most of the time, a question that starts with will does not signify the Future tense in English, therefore it does not necessitate the Future tense in Spanish.
Remember that in Spanish, the Present tense can be used to describe actions that will take place in the near future. This is unlike English because it is incorrect to translate the following two Spanish sentences literally.

Hoy a la noche salgo con amigas.
Tonight I will go out with some friends.
Me voy el año que viene.
I will go away next year.
In English, one might express the future by using to go. Much like this, Spanish can use the verb ir to describe plans or intentions for the future, or actions that will take place in the future. Both languages conjugate to go in the Present tense. In Spanish, add the particle a. For example the conjugation of ir with the particle a:

Using ir in the Present tense to express the future
voy a vamos a
vas a vais a
va a van a
Some example sentences follow.

Vamos a jugar al fútbol el domingo.
We are going to play football on Sunday.
Ellos van a viajar a Madrid la próxima semana.
They are going to travel to Madrid next week.
However, the future tense must be used for those actions that will take place further in the future. See these examples:

Me mudaré a fin de año.
I will move out by the end of the year.
Comenzaré a estudiar el mes que viene.
I will start studying next month.
Irregular Verbs

There are 12 main verbs in Spanish that are irregular in the future form, but only in the stem of the verb. The endings of these verbs remain the same as explained above. In the full conjugation, here is salir in the Future tense.

saldré saldremos
saldrás saldréis
saldrá saldrán
Infinitive First Person Singular
caber cabré
decir diré
haber habré
hacer haré
poder podré
poner pondré
querer querré
saber sabré
salir saldré
tener tendré
valer valdré
venir vendré
The compound verbs relating to these models behave the same way. Rehacer, prevaler, mantener, suponer, etc.

20

Pretérito anterior:
hube tenido:

hubimos tenido:
hubiste tenido:
hubo tenido:
hubieron tenido:

Pretérito anterior:
hube tenido:

hubimos tenido:
hubiste tenido:
hubo tenido:
hubieron tenido:

21

Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo:
había tenido:
habías tenido:
había tenido:
habíamos tenido:
habían tenido:

Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo:
había tenido:
habías tenido:
había tenido:
habíamos tenido:
habían tenido:

22

Perfecto de indicativo:
he tenido:
has tenido:
ha tenido:
hemos tenido:
han tenido:

Perfecto de indicativo:
he tenido:
has tenido:
ha tenido:
hemos tenido:
han tenido:

23

Gerundio: teniendo
Participio: tenido

Gerundio: teniendo: having
Participio: tenido: had

Gerundio: teniendo
Participio: tenido

24

Imperfecto de subjuntivo 2:
tuviese:
tuvieses:
tuviese:
tuviésemos:
tuviesen:

Imperfecto de subjuntivo 2:
tuviese:
tuvieses:
tuviese:
tuviésemos:
tuviesen:
Subjuntivo Imperfecto
Imperfect Subjunctive
When To Use

In Spanish, the Imperfect tense of the Subjunctive can be used to express subjectivity or uncertainty in the past.

There are three main uses of the Imperfect Subjunctive:

It can be used in conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si" (as if...). Take a look at these examples:

Si fueras griego, sabrías bailar esta música.
If you were Greek, you'd know how to dance to this music.
Me habla como si fuera su abuela.
He talks to me as if I was his grandma.
It can be used to make very polite requests with the verbs "querer", "deber" and "poder". See these examples:

Quisiera beber una copa de champaña.
I would like to have a glass of champagne.
¿Pudiera usted acompañarme?
Could you possibly come with me?
The Imperfect Subjunctive can be used in Spanish to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past. The same verbs and expressions are used as in the Perfect Subjunctive. However, for the Imperfect Subjunctive to occur, it needs a verb in the main clause that is in the Preterite, Imperfect, Conditional, or Pluperfect. Take a look at the examples to understand this more clearly:

Preferiría que ella no viniera.
I'd rather her not to come.
Pasaría un verano allí si tú estuvieras conmigo.
I would spend a summer there if you were with me.
Pensó en llevarme para que yo comprara los boletos.
She thought about taking me so I'd buy the tickets.
In the first sentence, there is a Conditional in the main clause (preferiría).
In the second sentence, there is again a Conditional in the main clause (pasaría).
In the third sentence, there is a Preterite indicative in the main sentence (pensó).

The Imperfect Subjunctive is used for:
conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si"
to make very polite requests
to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past.
Conjugation of verbs in the Imperfect Subjunctive

Regular, Irregular and stem-changing verbs are conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive in this way:

First, note that the Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish present two sets of conjugations: the –ra ending, and the –se ending. The –ra ending is slightly more colloquial, while the –se ending is a bit more formal.

Take the third person plural in Preterite of any verb, drop the ending –ron, and add one of the following endings to the stem:

–ra ending
—ra —´ramos
—ras —rais
—ra —ran
–se ending
—se —´semos
—ses —seis
—se —sen
Note that the first person plural takes an accent in the last vowel of the stem.

See an example conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive:

Me pidieron que fuera (o fuese) el padrino de su hijo.
They asked me to be their son's Godfather.
Me gustaría que tuvieras (o tuvieses) tiempo para leer mi artículo.
I would like you to have time to read my article.
Remember that the same phrases used in the Present Subjunctive can be used with the Imperfect Subjunctive:

es preferible que it is preferable that
es probable que it is likely that
es raro que it is rare that
es ridículo que it is ridiculous that
See the complete list of Subjunctive phrases.

25

Imperfecto de subjuntivo 1:
tuviera:
tuvieras:
tuviera:
tuviéramos:
tuvieran:

Imperfecto de subjuntivo 1:
tuviera:
tuvieras:
tuviera:
tuviéramos:
tuvieran:
Subjuntivo Imperfecto
Imperfect Subjunctive
When To Use

In Spanish, the Imperfect tense of the Subjunctive can be used to express subjectivity or uncertainty in the past.

There are three main uses of the Imperfect Subjunctive:

It can be used in conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si" (as if...). Take a look at these examples:

Si fueras griego, sabrías bailar esta música.
If you were Greek, you'd know how to dance to this music.
Me habla como si fuera su abuela.
He talks to me as if I was his grandma.
It can be used to make very polite requests with the verbs "querer", "deber" and "poder". See these examples:

Quisiera beber una copa de champaña.
I would like to have a glass of champagne.
¿Pudiera usted acompañarme?
Could you possibly come with me?
The Imperfect Subjunctive can be used in Spanish to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past. The same verbs and expressions are used as in the Perfect Subjunctive. However, for the Imperfect Subjunctive to occur, it needs a verb in the main clause that is in the Preterite, Imperfect, Conditional, or Pluperfect. Take a look at the examples to understand this more clearly:

Preferiría que ella no viniera.
I'd rather her not to come.
Pasaría un verano allí si tú estuvieras conmigo.
I would spend a summer there if you were with me.
Pensó en llevarme para que yo comprara los boletos.
She thought about taking me so I'd buy the tickets.
In the first sentence, there is a Conditional in the main clause (preferiría).
In the second sentence, there is again a Conditional in the main clause (pasaría).
In the third sentence, there is a Preterite indicative in the main sentence (pensó).

The Imperfect Subjunctive is used for:
conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si"
to make very polite requests
to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past.
Conjugation of verbs in the Imperfect Subjunctive

Regular, Irregular and stem-changing verbs are conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive in this way:

First, note that the Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish present two sets of conjugations: the –ra ending, and the –se ending. The –ra ending is slightly more colloquial, while the –se ending is a bit more formal.

Take the third person plural in Preterite of any verb, drop the ending –ron, and add one of the following endings to the stem:

–ra ending
—ra —´ramos
—ras —rais
—ra —ran
–se ending
—se —´semos
—ses —seis
—se —sen
Note that the first person plural takes an accent in the last vowel of the stem.

See an example conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive:

Me pidieron que fuera (o fuese) el padrino de su hijo.
They asked me to be their son's Godfather.
Me gustaría que tuvieras (o tuvieses) tiempo para leer mi artículo.
I would like you to have time to read my article.
Remember that the same phrases used in the Present Subjunctive can be used with the Imperfect Subjunctive:

es preferible que it is preferable that
es probable que it is likely that
es raro que it is rare that
es ridículo que it is ridiculous that
See the complete list of Subjunctive phrases.

Subjuntivo Imperfecto
Imperfect Subjunctive
When To Use

In Spanish, the Imperfect tense of the Subjunctive can be used to express subjectivity or uncertainty in the past.

There are three main uses of the Imperfect Subjunctive:

It can be used in conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si" (as if...). Take a look at these examples:

Si fueras griego, sabrías bailar esta música.
If you were Greek, you'd know how to dance to this music.
Me habla como si fuera su abuela.
He talks to me as if I was his grandma.
It can be used to make very polite requests with the verbs "querer", "deber" and "poder". See these examples:

Quisiera beber una copa de champaña.
I would like to have a glass of champagne.
¿Pudiera usted acompañarme?
Could you possibly come with me?
The Imperfect Subjunctive can be used in Spanish to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past. The same verbs and expressions are used as in the Perfect Subjunctive. However, for the Imperfect Subjunctive to occur, it needs a verb in the main clause that is in the Preterite, Imperfect, Conditional, or Pluperfect. Take a look at the examples to understand this more clearly:

Preferiría que ella no viniera.
I'd rather her not to come.
Pasaría un verano allí si tú estuvieras conmigo.
I would spend a summer there if you were with me.
Pensó en llevarme para que yo comprara los boletos.
She thought about taking me so I'd buy the tickets.
In the first sentence, there is a Conditional in the main clause (preferiría).
In the second sentence, there is again a Conditional in the main clause (pasaría).
In the third sentence, there is a Preterite indicative in the main sentence (pensó).

The Imperfect Subjunctive is used for:
conditional sentences with an if clause (si...) and in sentences with the conjunction "como si"
to make very polite requests
to express uncertainty or subjectivity in the past.
Conjugation of verbs in the Imperfect Subjunctive

Regular, Irregular and stem-changing verbs are conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive in this way:

First, note that the Imperfect Subjunctive in Spanish present two sets of conjugations: the –ra ending, and the –se ending. The –ra ending is slightly more colloquial, while the –se ending is a bit more formal.

Take the third person plural in Preterite of any verb, drop the ending –ron, and add one of the following endings to the stem:

–ra ending
—ra —´ramos
—ras —rais
—ra —ran
–se ending
—se —´semos
—ses —seis
—se —sen
Note that the first person plural takes an accent in the last vowel of the stem.

See an example conjugated in the Imperfect Subjunctive:

Me pidieron que fuera (o fuese) el padrino de su hijo.
They asked me to be their son's Godfather.
Me gustaría que tuvieras (o tuvieses) tiempo para leer mi artículo.
I would like you to have time to read my article.
Remember that the same phrases used in the Present Subjunctive can be used with the Imperfect Subjunctive:

es preferible que it is preferable that
es probable que it is likely that
es raro que it is rare that
es ridículo que it is ridiculous that
See the complete list of Subjunctive phrases.

26

Presente de subjuntivo:
tenga:
tengas:
tenga:
tengamos:
tengan:

Presente de subjuntivo:
tenga:
tengas:
tenga:
tengamos:
tengan:
Subjuntivo
Subjunctive
When To Use

The other summaries have talked about tenses like the Future, Present, or the Preterite. Those tenses referred to real actions and events taking place in a specific time frame. They are in a category called the indicative mood. However, the Subjunctive is quite different from this. It is not considered a tense, but a mood in its own. While tenses refer to real actions and events, the Subjunctive is a mood, and it refers to how the speaker feels about an action or event.

Critican que el tenga un auto de lujo.
They criticize that he has a luxury car.
Si ellos fueran inteligentes, venderían la casa ahora.
If they were intelligent, they would sell the house now.
The difference between the indicative mood and the subjunctive mood will be illustrated here.

This sentence reflects an actual fact that is going to happen in the future.

Él va a estudiar derecho el próximo año.
He is going to Law School next year.
Now this sentence reflects how the speaker feels about a certain action that might take place in the future. In this sentence, the subjunctive vaya is used to express the subjectivity of the speaker.

Dudo que el vaya a estudiar derecho el próximo año.
I doubt that he is going to Law School next year.
It can be inferred that the subjunctive is used to express uncertainty, advice, doubt, subjectivity, hope, wishes, possibility, and more.

The indicative is related to certainty and objectivity, while the subjunctive is related to possibility and subjectivity.

When a sentence expresses certainty and objectivity in the first clause, it will take the indicative mood in the following clause. But when the first clause expresses doubt and subjectivity, the second clause will be in the subjunctive mood. See these examples:

Indicative

Es seguro que voy a ir a Londres en junio.
It is certain that I will go to London in June.
—certainty in the first clause, indicative mood in the second clause
Subjunctive

Es probable que vaya a Londres en junio
It is probable that I will go to London in June
—uncertainty in the first clause, subjunctive in the second clause
In Spanish, there are some phrases that help us recognize that a subjunctive will be used next. This is a complete list of the other smaller lists in this document.

Triggers for the Subjunctive
a menos que unless
antes (de) que before
con tal (de) que provided that
conviene que it is advisable that
cuando when
después (de) que after
dudar que to doubt that
en caso de que in case
en cuanto as soon as
es (una) lástima que it's a pity that
es aconsejable que it's advisable that
es bueno que it's good that
es difícil que it's unlikely that
es dudoso que it is doubtful that
es fantástico que it's fantastic that
es fácil que it's likely that
es importante que it's important that
es imposible que it's impossible that
es improbable que it's unlikely that
es incierto que it's uncertain that
es increíble que it's incredible that
es malo que it's bad that
es mejor que it's better that
es menester que it's necessary that
es necesario que it's necessary that
es posible que it's possible that
es preciso que it's necessary that
es preferible que it's preferable that
es probable que it's probable that
es raro que it's rare that
es ridículo que it's ridiculous that
es terrible que it's terrible that
esperar que to wish that
estar contento que to be happy that
hasta que until
insistir en que to insist that
mandar que to order that
mientras que while
más vale que it's better that
negar que to deny that
no creer que not to believe that
no es cierto que it's not certain that
no es verdad que it's not true that
no estar convencido de que to not be convinced that
no estar seguro de que to not be sure that
no imaginarse que to not imagine that
no parecer que to not seem that
no pensar que to not think that
no suponer que to not suppose that
ojalá que if only he would
para que in order that
pedir que to ask that
preferir que to prefer that
prohibir que to prohibit that
puede ser que it may be that
querer que to want that
recomendar que to recommend that
rogar que to plead that
sentir que to regret that
sin que without
sugerir que to suggest that
tan pronto como as soon as
temer que to fear that
tener miedo de que to be afraid that
Remember that the subjunctive is used when expressing an opinion, or uncertainty regarding a particular action or event.

The following list of expressions show the subjectivity of the speaker or the subject of the action, because they express a sense of desire. They are used with the subjunctive:

Subjectivity Triggers
es aconsejable que it is advisable that
es necesario que it is necessary that
esperar que to wish that
insistir en que to insist that
mandar que to order that
pedir que to ask that
preferir que to prefer that
prohibir que to prohibit that
querer que to want that
recomendar que to recommend that
rogar que to plead that
sugerir que to suggest that
Remember that the above phrases can be conjugated to apply them to each situation. See these examples:

Los miembros quieren prohibir que ella entre al salón.
The members want to prohibit that she enter the room.
Los profesores recomendaron que Lucía tome clases extra.
The teachers recommended that Lucia take some extra classes.
The subjunctive can also be used to express ignorance or doubt. This is a list of phrases and expressions in the subjunctive used to describe this aspect:

Triggers for Ignorance or Doubt
dudar que to doubt that
es dudoso que it is doubtful that
es improbable que it is unlikely that
es incierto que it is uncertain that
es posible que it is possible that
negar que to deny that
no creer que not to believe that
no es cierto que it is not certain that
no es verdad que it is not true that
no estar convencido de que to not be convinced that
no estar seguro de que to not be sure that
no imaginarse que to not imagine that
no parecer que to not seem that
no pensar que to not think that
no suponer que to not suppose that
puede ser que it may be that
temer que to suspect that
It is worth to repeat that the subjunctive is used to express uncertainty and subjectivity. The following list of impersonal expressions and phrases are used in the subjunctive, and they express doubt and personal opinion:

Triggers for Doubt and Personal Opinion
conviene que it is advisable that
es (una) lástima que it is a shame that
es aconsejable que it is advisable that
es bueno que it is good that
es difícil que it is unlikely that
es dudoso que it is doubtful that
es fantástico que it is fantastic that
es fácil que it is likely that
es importante que it is important that
es imposible que it is impossible that
es improbable que it is unlikely that
es incierto que it is uncertain that
es increíble que it is incredible that
es malo que it is bad that
es mejor que it is better that
es menester que it is necessary that
es necesario que it is necessary that
es posible que it is possible that
es preciso que it is necessary that
es preferible que it is preferable that
es probable que it is likely that
es raro que it is rare that
es ridículo que it is ridiculous that
es terrible que it is terrible that
más vale que it is better that
ojalá que if only he would
puede ser que it could be that
See some examples of the above phrases in a subjunctive sentence.

Es incierto que ella vaya a graduarse este año.
It is uncertain that she will graduate this year.
Es una lástima que ellos no vengan con nosotros.
It is a shame that they will not come with us.
It is worth mentioning at this point some of the phrases that trigger the use of the indicative mood (present, past, future), because they emphasize the factual or objective aspect of the sentence:

Triggers for the Indicative
es evidente que it is certain that
es obvio que it is obvious that
es verdad que it's true that
no es dudoso que it is not doubtful that
no hay duda que there is no doubt that
The subjunctive is also used with actions that are not yet completed or have not happened yet. These expressions are always used with the subjunctive:

Triggers for the Subjunctive
a menos que unless
antes (de) que before
con tal (de) que provided that
en caso de que in case
para que so that
sin que without
Here are some examples with the above expressions.

Con tal de que termines tu tarea, podrás salir a jugar.
Provided that you finish your homework, you can go out to play.
En caso de que llueva llevemos paraguas.
Let's take an umbrella in case it rains.
The following list of expressions can only be used with the subjunctive if the action that follows is not complete:

Subjunctive if Incomplete Action
después de que after
en cuanto as soon as
hasta que until
mientras que while
tan pronto como as soon as
How to use these expressions with the subjunctive:

Tan pronto como había llegado, sonó el teléfono.
As soon as I had arrived, the telephone rang.
In the above example, the action is in the past, and after the expression, a Past Perfect is used. This type of action is certain and objective, and it takes a verb in the indicative mood.

Tan pronto como él llegue, cenaremos.
As soon as he arrives, we will have dinner.
In the above sentence, the action is uncertain, and it is not yet complete. After the expression, the verb in the subjunctive form is used.

Conjugation

To conjugate most verbs in the subjunctive, one follows these simple rules:

1. Take the "yo" form of any verb in the present indicative, for example, for the verb comer, take the form "como".
2. Leave out the –o ending, in this case, "com-".
3. Finally, add the appropriate ending.

Regular –er & –ir verbs
—a —amos
—as —áis
—a —an
Yo como – o = com

coma comamos
comas comáis
coma coman
Also, the verb "discutir" will be conjugated in this way in the Subjunctive:

Yo discuto – o = discut

discuta discutamos
discutas discutáis
discuta discutan
Like most other tenses, the regular –ar verbs have different endings than –er and –ir verbs.

Regular –ar verbs
—e —emos
—es —éis
—e —en
For example, the verb "llorar" will be conjugated like this:

Yo lloro – o = llor

llore lloremos
llores lloréis
llore lloren
The same rule applies for verbs that have an irregular form for the first person singular yo. Verbs in this list include "salir", "tener" and "conocer". See these examples:

Salir

Yo salgo - o = salg

salga salgamos
salgas salgáis
salga salgan
Conocer

Yo conozco - o = conozc

conozca conozcamos
conozcas conozcáis
conozca conozcan
Tener

Yo tengo - o = teng

tenga tengamos
tengas tengáis
tenga tengan
The rule also applies for –ar and –er infinitives with changing stems. However, the stem does not change in the form "nosotros" and "vosotros". See these examples of perder (stem changing –er verb) and pensar (stem changing –ar verb) to understand this more clearly:

perder present indicative

pierdo perdemos
pierdes perdéis
pierde pierden
perder subjunctive

pierda perdamos
pierdas perdáis
pierda pierdan
pensar present indicative

pienso pensamos
piensas pensáis
piensa piensan
pensar subjunctive

piense pensemos
pienses penséis
piense piensen
For the pronouns "nosotros" and "vosotros", the stem stays the same as in the infinitive.

This rule applies to stem-changing –ir verbs as well. However, the stem change in the forms for "nosotros" and "vosotros" follow a particular pattern:

o:ue verbs change o to u in the stem (for "nosotros" and "vosotros")

Example: dormir: yo duermo – o = duerm

duerma durmamos
duermas durmáis
duerma duerman
e:ie verbs change e to i in the stem (for "nosotros" and "vosotros")

Example: sentir: yo siento – o = sient

sienta sintamos
sientas sintáis
sienta sientan
e:i verbs change e to i in the stem (for "nosotros" and "vosotros")

Example: pedir: yo pido – o = pid

pida pidamos
pidas pidáis
pida pidan
Orthographic Changes

In Spanish, some verbs need to be altered when they are conjugated in order to maintain the sound that connects and identifies it with the infinitive. Verbs ending in –uir, –gar, –guir, –car, –ger, –gir, and –zar present orthographical changes in the Subjuctive.

In Spanish, verbs ending in –uir take the letter y before the letter a.

Verb: huir

huya huyamos
huyas huyáis
huya huyan
In Spanish, verbs ending in –gar change g to gu when the letter e comes next.

Verb: tragar

trague traguemos
tragues traguéis
trague traguen
Spanish verbs that end in –car change c to qu when the letter e come next.

Verb: tocar

toque toquemos
toques toquéis
toque toquen
Spanish verbs that end in –guir must be altered in this way: gu is replaced by g when the letter a comes next.

Verb: seguir

siga sigamos
sigas sigáis
siga sigan
Spanish verbs that end in –ger and –gir need to replace g with j when the letter a comes next.

Verb: recoger

recoja recojamos
recojas recojáis
recoja recojan
Verb: surgir

surja surjamos
surjas surjáis
surja surjan
Finally, verbs that end in –zar take c instead of z when it comes before the letter e.

Verb: tropezar (stem change e:ie)

tropiece tropecemos
tropieces tropecéis
tropiece tropiecen
Irregular Verbs

In Spanish, there are six verbs that have an irregular form in the present subjunctive. Those verbs are:

dar
estar
haber
ir
saber
ser
dar

dé demos
des deis
dé den
estar

esté estemos
estés estéis
esté estén
haber

haya hayamos
hayas hayáis
haya hayan
ir

vaya vayamos
vayas vayáis
vaya vayan
saber

sepa sepamos
sepas sepáis
sepa sepan
ser

sea seamos
seas seáis
sea sean

27

Condicional:
tendría:
tendrías:
tendría:
tendríamos:
tendrían:

Condicional:
tendría:
tendrías:
tendría:
tendríamos:
tendrían:
Condicional
Conditional
When To Use

In Spanish, as well as in English, the Conditional is used to express probability, possibility, conjectures about something or someone, and wonder. See these examples:

Lo compraría si lo viera.
I would buy it if I saw it.
—probability, possibility
¿Qué sería lo que quería decirme?
What could it have been that he wanted to tell me?
—wonder
Deberíamos estar en el jardín.
We must have been in the garden.
—conjecture about the past
In these examples it is easy to see the words normally used in the conditionals are "probably", "would (for conditional)", "could", and "must have".

The conditional has a few specific uses depending on the situation.

The conditional is used to talk about something in the future from a perspective of the past. Something that somehow was anticipated. See the examples:

Yo pensaba que vendrías solo.
I thought you would come alone.
Todos creíamos que serías el primero en hablar.
We all thought you would be the first to speak.
In the above sentences, something in the past was thought or expected to happen in the future. See how this sentence works if a time frame is added:

Anoche pensaba que hoy vendrías solo.
Last night I was thinking that you would come alone today.
Antes de llegar, todos creíamos que serías el primero en hablar después de la cena.
Before arriving, we all thought you would be the first to speak after dinner.
The Conditional expresses speculation about something in the past.

Estaría hablando con tu tía cuando me llamaste, porque no te escuché.
I must have been talking to your aunt when you called me, because I didn't hear you.
El diputado sería la persona más importante en esa sala.
The deputy must have been the most important person in the room.
In the above sentences, it was guessed that something must have happened.

Another use of the Conditional is to talk about what would happen if the situation were different.

Le hablaría pero estoy enojado con ella.
I would talk to her but I am mad at her.
Este televisor serviría si no fuese tan viejo.
This TV would work if it weren't so old.
Yet another use the Conditional is to talk about hypothetical events or actions, even if they may or may not take place. They may be connected to wishes and hopes.

Sería interesante charlar con el director del film.
It would be interesting to talk to the film director.
Saldría de vacaciones a mitad de año.
I would go on holidays by mid-year.
It is possible to use the Conditional to request advice on a particular situation.

¿Qué debería contestarle?
What should I tell him?
¿Cómo debería vestirme para ir a esa entrevista?
How should I dress to go to that interview?
It can be used to request something politely.

¿Me alcanzarías la sal?
Would you pass me the salt, please?
¿Nos diría donde queda el teatro?
Would you tell us where the theatre is, please?
It can show what would be done on a certain situation.

¿Saldrías con él si te invitara?
Would you go out with him if he asked you out?
Le diría que estoy ocupada.
I would tell him that I'm busy.
Use the Conditional for reported speech, when the main clause is in the past.

Miranda asumió que llegaríamos temprano.
Miranda assumed that we would arrive early.
Pablo prometió que miraría la película.
Paul promised that he would watch the movie.
Notice that, in reported speech, if the main clause is in the present, the Future is used instead of the conditional.

Miranda dice que llegaremos temprano.
Miranda says that we will arrive early.
Pablo promete que mirará la película.
Paul promises he will watch the movie.
It can also show an action or event that is unlikely to happen. This is part of the if clauses that will be developed in depth later on this summary.

Si tuvieras ganas, lo harías.
If you felt like it, you would do it.
Lo limpiaría si consiguiera detergente.
I would clean it if I got the detergent.
Earlier in this document there was mention of the Conditional making speculations and expressing probability about something in the past. Keep in mind that if the speculation or probability is in the future, the Future needs to be used. Take a look a the following examples to compare both situations.

Speculation or probability about the past:

¿Qué estarías haciendo cuando te llamé desde el jardín?
What must you have been doing when I called you from the garden?
Sería ella la que golpeó la puerta esta mañana.
It was probably her who knocked at the door this morning.
Speculation or probability about the present:

¿Estarás estudiando en silecio?
Can you be studying in silence?
Probablemente estará llegando.
She is probably getting there.
The Conditional tense is used for:
probability
possibility
wonder
conjecture about the past
something in the future from a perspective of the past
speculation about something in the past
what would happen if the situation were different
hypothetical events or actions
request advice on a particular situation
request something politely
what we would do on a certain situation
reported speech, when the main clause is in the past
an action or event that is unlikely to happen
Conjugation

Regular verbs are easy to conjugate in the Conditional. Simply add the following endings to any –ar, –er, –ir infinitives.

Regular verbs
—ía —íamos
—ías —íais
—ía —ían
Here are some examples:

Yo comería si tuviera hambre.
I would eat if I was hungry.
Él iría si lo hubieran invitado.
He would go if he had been invited.
Ellos pagarían si tuvieran dinero.
They would pay if they had money.
Notice that the above sentences present an if clause. This is explained later in this summary.

Exceptions

The Future Tense document explains that there are 12 irregular verbs that change the stem but have the same ending that regular verbs have. The same happens with the conjugation of those 12 verbs in the Conditional. They take the same endings as regular verbs.

But their stem changes. See how they alter their stem when conjugated in the Conditional:

Infinitive First Person Singular
caber cabría
decir diría
haber habría
hacer haría
poder podría
poner pondría
querer querría
saber sabría
salir saldría
tener tendría
valer valdría
venir vendría
As it was mentioned before, the stem is irregular but the ending follows the same rule as for regular verbs. The full conjugation of poder follows.

podría podríamos
podrías podríais
podría podrían
If Clauses in Spanish

The If clauses in Spanish are conditional sentences that express what would happen if something else happens, or if a condition is met. The If clauses can be divided into the First, Second and Third Conditionals.

The First Conditional in Spanish

The first conditional is used to talk about actions and events that are possible or likely to occur. One can talk about something that is likely or possible to occur in the 1. present (as a general rule or as a customary event), 2. in the future, or 3. as a command.

Here is a look at how each of these types of sentences are built:

The conditional clause is the part of the sentence that has the word "si" (if). Conditional sentences are formed by a conditional clause and a main clause.

1. Present conditional clause + present main clause

This type of conditional construction is used for actions and events that occur regularly when a condition is met. Sometimes, the word "si" can be replaced with "cuando", and the meaning stays the same. See these examples:

Si me levanto temprano me duele la cabeza.
If I get up early I get a headache.
Si pones agua en el frezador se congela.
If you put water into the freezer it freezes.
In the above sentences, a general rule or custom is described in a Conditional sentence. They tell us what happens if something else happens. Notice that the meaning is the same when replacing the word "si" with "cuando":

Cuando me levanto temprano me duele la cabeza.
When I get up early I get a headache.
2. Present Conditional Clause + Future Clause

This type of conditional construction is used for actions and events that will occur in the future if a certain condition is met. Take a look at the examples:

Si consigo dinero iré a Las Vegas.
If I get the money I will go to Las Vegas.
Si mis padres me llaman les contaré que me ascendieron.
If my parents call me I will tell them that I got a promotion.
In the above sentences, it was described what will happen provided something else happens.

3. Present Conditional Clause + Command

This type of conditional construction is used for giving orders to somebody provided a specific condition is met. Take a look at the examples:

Si el jefe llama, dile que salí a comer.
If the boss calls, tell him I went out for lunch.
Si deja de llover, saca la basura.
If the rain stops, take out the garbage.
The Second Conditional in Spanish

The second conditional is used for talking about actions and events that are unlikely or currently impossible. For example when talking about something that is unlikely or impossible to occur in the present, unless circumstances change. Here is a look at how this type of sentence is built:

Conditional clause including the imperfect subjunctive + conditional clause

Si pudiera cantar, sería famosa.
If I could sing, I would be famous.
Iría a visitarlo si supiera donde vive.
I would visit him if I knew where he lives.
The above sentences describe situations that are unreal, because the result is not possible in the present, due to negative circumstances: I am not famous because I can't sing, and I can't visit him because I don't know where he lives. However, these situations can become real if the circumstances change, although it is very unlikely.

The Third Conditional in Spanish

The third conditional is used to talk about actions and events that are completely impossible. It can be said that the situation described with the third conditional would have happened, if some other condition had been met. However, since that condition was not met, the situation has not happened. Some examples will clarify this:

Conditional clause including the Pluperfect Subjunctive + Pluperfect Subjunctive or Conditional Perfect

Si me hubieras avisado, no le hubiera (o habría) dicho nada.
If you had warned me, I wouldn't have told her anything.
Si hubiéramos votado diferente, no habrían (o hubieran) ganado los mismos.
If we had voted differently, there wouldn't have been the same winners.
Si ella hubiera visto esta película, se hubiera (o habría) asustado.
If she had seen that movie, she would have been scared.
In the above examples, the clause that expresses the result presents an impossible situation. This is why:

Si me hubieras avisado, no le hubiera (o habría) dicho nada.
(pero no me avisaste, y le dije)
If you had warned me, I wouldn't have told her anything.
(but you didn't warn me, and I told her)
Si hubiéramos votado diferente, no habrían (or hubieran) ganado los mismos.
(pero votamos a los mismos, y ganaron los mismos)
If we had voted differently, there wouldn't have been the same winners.
(but we voted for the same people, and the same people won)
Si ella hubiera visto esta película, se hubiera (o habría) asustado.
(pero no la vio, por eso no se asustó)
If she had seen that movie, she would have been scared.
(but she didn't see it, so she didn't get scared)

28

Futuro:
tendré:
tendrás:
tendrá:
tendremos:
tendrán:

Futuro:
tendré:
tendrás:
tendrá:
tendremos:
tendrán:

29

Pretérito:
tuve:
tuviste:
tuvo:
tuvimos:
tuvieron:

Pretérito:
tuve:
tuviste:
tuvo:
tuvimos:
tuvieron:
Pretérito
Preterite
When To Use

In general, the Preterite is used to talk about actions in the past that have a definite beginning and a definite end. These actions are completed, whether their start or end times are stated or not. Examples of this:

María llevó a su bebé al doctor.
María took her baby to the doctor.
Lucas paseó por la plaza con sus amigos.
Lucas went for a stroll in the park with his friends.
In the above sentences, the verb in the Preterite determines that the actions took place in the past (and it is unknown when they started or ended). In the following example, the duration of the action is clearly stated:

Lucas habló por teléfono durante una hora.
Lucas was on the phone for one hour.
The Preterite is used to describe single events in the past.

Se despertó antes de que saliera el sol.
She woke up before the sunrise.
Despidió a su hija en el aeropuerto.
She saw her daughter off at the airport.
It is common to leave out the subject of the sentence and use only the conjugation of the verb.
Llegué a su casa a las nueve.
I arrived at her house at nine.
The Preterite explains the time when an event or action started or ended.

La clase de gimnasia comenzó a las dos.
The gym class started at two.
El robo se cometió a la mañana.
The robbery was committed in the morning.
Llegué al dentista a las cinco.
I arrived at the dentist's office at five.
The Preterite can also be used to describe a series of actions or events that followed each other.

Se levantó, bajó las escaleras y tomó las llaves de su auto.
She woke up, went down the stairs and took her car keys.
Al llegar, cerró su paraguas, se sacudió la ropa y saludó a los invitados.
On arriving, she closed her umbrella, shook off her clothes, and greeted the guests.
Finally, the Preterite can be used to talk about repeated actions or events or things that happened during a specific period of time.

El teléfono sonó cincuenta veces ayer.
The telephone rang fifty times yesterday.
Le dije mi nombre cuatro veces.
I told her my name four times.
Llovió todo el fin de semana.
It rained throughout the weekend.
Trabajé allí por dos años.
I worked there for two years.
In general terms, the Preterite is used for actions with a definite:
beginning
end
completion
Conjugation

To form the Preterite of regular –ar verbs, drop the –ar ending and add these endings to the stem.

Regular –ar verbs
—é —amos
—aste —asteis
—ó —aron
Jugar is a regular –ar verb in the Preterite.

jugó
jugué jugamos
jugaste jugasteis
jugaron
In everyday speech, some Spanish speakers will use the second person singular incorrectly, and add a final s. In this case tú jugastes. Avoid using this as a student.
To form the Preterite of regular –er and –ir verbs, drop the ending and add to these suffixes to the stem.

Regular –er & –ir verbs
—í —imos
—iste —isteis
—ió —ieron
Comer is a regular –er verb in the Preterite.

comí comimos
comiste comisteis
comió comieron
Vivir is a regular –ir verb in the Preterite.

viví vivimos
viviste vivisteis
vivió vivieron
Rules

There are a number of rules to help with mastering irregulars of the Preterite tense.

1. Irregular –ar or –er verbs that change their stem in the Present tense, do not change in the Preterite. They stay regular. To clarify this, take the stem changing -er verb devolver (o:ue).

Present

Yo devuelvo lo que no es mío.
I return what isn't mine.
Preterite

Yo devolví lo que no era mío.
I returned what wasn't mine.
Present

devuelvo devolvemos
devuelves devolvéis
devuelve devuelven
Preterite

devolví devolvimos
devolviste devolvisteis
devolvió devolvieron
2. Irregular –ir verbs that change their stem in the Present also change the Preterite.

All (e:i) and (o:u) stem changing verbs also change in the 3rd person.

Pedir

Present

pido pedimos
pides pedís
pide piden
Preterite

pedí pedimos
pediste pedisteis
pidió pidieron
Medir

Present

mido medimos
mides medís
mide miden
Preterite

medí medimos
mediste medisteis
midió midieron
Dormir

Present

duermo dormimos
duermes dormís
duerme duermen
Preterite

dormí dormimos
dormiste dormisteis
durmió durmieron
3. The next set of irregular verbs change the stem in the Preterite independently of the Present tense.

Infinitive Stem
andar anduv–
caber cup–
estar estuv–
haber hub–
hacer1 hic–
poder pud–
poner pus–
querer quis–
saber sup–
tener tuv–
venir vin–
1Hacer presents an exception in the third person singular, where instead of hico it is hizo, changing c to z.
For example, poner.

Present

pongo ponemos
pones ponéis
pone ponen
Preterite

puse pusimos
pusiste pusisteis
puso pusieron
4. The following three verbs have an irregular form in the Preterite: traer, decir, and ver.

Decir

Present

digo decimos
dices decís
dice dicen
Preterite

dije dijimos
dijiste dijisteis
dijo dijeron
Ver

Present

veo vemos
ves veis
ve ven
Preterite

vi vimos
viste visteis
vio vieron
Traer

Present

traigo traemos
traes traéis
trae traen
Preterite

traje trajimos
trajiste trajisteis
trajo trajeron
Verbs derived from traer also have this irregular form.

atraer
detraer
distraer
extraer
maltraer
retraer
sustraer
5. There is a set of infinitive verbs with an –ucir ending that also have an irregular form in the Preterite.

Verbs ending in –ucir:

aducir
conducir
coproducir
deducir
inducir
introducir
producir
reducir
traducir
This is how to conjugate producir:

produje produjimos
produjiste produjisteis
produjo produjeron
Some example sentences will put this verb into perspective.

Ese auto produjo el accidente.
That car produced the accident.
Nosotros no produjimos este cambio.
We did not produce this change.
¿Produjiste una pelea entre tus amigos?
Did you produce a fight between your friends?
6. In Spanish, some verbs need to be changed in the Preterite in order to maintain its sound. These changes apply only to the first person singular. The spelling of the following verbs have to be altered to be phonetically correct.

Spelling changes to maintain sound:
–zar change z to c
–gar change g to gu
–car change c to qu
Verbs ending in –zar that change z to c in the first person singular

Infinitive First Person Singular
cruzar crucé
comenzar comencé
cazar cacé
autorizar autoricé
almorzar almorcé
empezar empecé
tropezarse tropecé
forzar forcé
simbolizar simbolicé
organizar organicé
Cazar

cacé cazamos
cazaste cazasteis
cazó cazaron
Verbs ending in –gar that change g to gu in the first person singular

Infinitive First Person Singular
cegar cegué
colgar colgué
jugar jugué
llegar llegué
pagar pagué
plegar plegué
regar regué
rogar rogué
tragar tragué
vagar vagué
Verbs ending in –car that change c to qu in the first person singular

Infinitive First Person Singular
aparcar aparqué
buscar busqué
clarificar clarifiqué
clasificar clasifiqué
destacar destaqué
embarcar embarqué
empacar empaqué
justificar justifiqué
practicar practiqué
sacar saqué
tocar toqué
7. Verbs with an infinitive ending in –aer, –eer, –oír, and –oer change in the following way:

Changes for verbs ending in –aer, –eer, –oír, and –oer:
–í –ímos
–íste –ísteis
–yó –yeron
Notice that all other persons take a written accent over the letter i.
These examples with caer will help show these conjugations.

Caí por las escaleras y me lastimé el brazo.
I rolled down the stairs and hurt my arm.
Él cayó desde el barco pero sabía nadar.
He fell off the boat but he could swim.
Ellos cayeron en la trampa.
They fell for it.
Some verbs that follow this rule are:

caer
leer
oír
poseer
proveer
roer
This –aer rule does not apply to traer patterned verbs. See rule #4 above.
8. Finally, verbs ending in –uir change in the following way in the Preterite:

In general terms, the Preterite is used for actions with a definite:
–í –imos
–iste –isteis
–yó –yeron
Taking a look at the verb construir:

Yo construí una casa para mi abuela.
I built a house for my grandmother.
El construyó su propio barco.
He built his own ship.
Ellos construyeron un sistema de riego.
They built an irrigation system.
Only the first person singular (yo form) takes a written accent over the letter i.
Verbs that follow this rule:

atribuir
construir
contribuir
destruir
fluir
incluir
influir
retribuir
Irregular Verbs

There are four verbs that have an irregular form in the Preterite Tense: ser, hacer, ir, and dar.

Dar

di dimos
diste disteis
dio dieron
Hacer

hice hicimos
hiciste hicisteis
hizo hicieron
Ir

fui fuimos
fuiste fuisteis
fue fueron
Ser

fui fuimos
fuiste fuisteis
fue fueron
Note that the verbs ser and ir have identical conjugations here.

30

Imperfecto:
tenía :
tenías:
tenía:
teníamos:
tenían:

Imperfecto:
tenía :
tenías:
tenía:
teníamos:
tenían:
Imperfecto
Imperfect
When To Use

The Imperfect has a few uses in Spanish. It can describe actions that set the stage for a main action. This background information describes what was going on when a certain action took place.

To describe the main action, use the verb in the Preterite.

Los niños se estaban peleando cuando la maestra entró.
The children were fighting when the teacher came in.
Estaba leyendo un libro cuando él llegó.
I was reading a book when he arrived.
The Imperfect is also used to talk about habitual actions. If an action was repeated regularly or it was customary, it is described using the Imperfect.

Dormíamos hasta el mediodía.
We would sleep until midday.
Ella se sentaba en el porche a tejer.
She used to sit at the porch and knit.
The Imperfect is used to talk about the time or somebody's age at a certain point in the past:

Yo tenía siete años cuando mis padres se divorciaron.
I was seven years old when my parents got divorced.
Eran las 10 AM y todavía no había llegado.
It was 10 AM and she hadn't arrived.
As it can be seen in all previous examples, the Imperfect is used to say when, in general, an action took place.

Besides these reasons, characteristics or conditions of people, things, or places in the past, usually with the verbs "ser" and "estar", but also with "tener", "presentar", "lucir", etc. See these examples:

La mujer era pobre pero honrada.
The woman was poor but honest.
La ciudad estaba rodeada de árboles.
The city was surrounded by trees.
El joven tenía pelo rubio y ojos azules.
The young man had blond hair and blue eyes.
La casa contaba con un jardín trasero.
The house had a backyard.
In Spanish, the Imperfect Tense is used to talk about actions in the past that do not have a definite beginning or a definite end. While in the Preterite, the actions are considered complete, the opposite is implied in the use of the Imperfect.

The Imperfect Tense is used for:
actions happening when a main action occurred
habitual actions
the time
somebody's age in the past
conditions in the past
actions without definite starts or ends
Conjugation

To conjugate a regular –ar verb in the Imperfect, drop the –ar ending and add these endings.

Regular –ar verbs
—aba —ábamos
—abas —abais
—aba —aban
Here are some examples of the Imperfect using regular -ar verbs.

Cantábamos mientras viajábamos para la costa.
We would sing while traveling to the beach.
El niño jugaba con su mochila.
The boy would play with his backpack.
Las niñas gritaban de miedo durante la película.
The girls were screaming with fear during the movie.
To conjugate regular verbs ending in –er and –ir, leave out the ending then add these suffixes.

Regular –er & –ir verbs
—ía —íamos
—ías —íais
—ía —ían
All the endings take a written accent over the letter i. Some examples of the conjugations follow.

La casa servía de escondite.
The house would serve as a place for hiding.
El niño corría detrás de su caballo.
The boy was running after his horse.
Todos veíamos la televisión en el living.
We would all watch tv in the living room.
In speaking, the accent in the –er and –ir conjugations indicate stress on the i.
The i is always pronounced like the vowel sound in the English word tree.
Exceptions

Students can have difficulty determining whether a verb is in the Preterite or the Imperfect. To avoid confusion, try replacing the verb in the sentence with one of these structures.

Was/were + ing verb

La niña leía un cuento.
The girl was reading a story.
—single action that set the stage for something else
Used to

Todos los días tomaba café en el desayuno.
I used to have coffee for breakfast everyday.
—habitual action
Would (meaning used to)

Ella caminaba tres kilómetros por la tarde.
She would take a three kilometer walk in the afternoon.
—habit, custom
The Imperfect is used to talk about mental states, thoughts, and feelings too. This is because in general, the beginning or end of a mental state or feeling cannot be identified. The same applies for physical sensations, like pain. These sentences exemplify these rules:

Le dolía la cabeza.
She had a headache.
—Literally translated: The head was hurting to her.
Todos pensábamos que el monstruo era real.
We all thought that the monster was real.
Nos sentíamos apenados por la situación.
We were upset about the situation.
Other verbs that can be used in this way are:

gustar to like
creer to believe
tener miedo to be afraid
doler to ache
pensar to think
Irregular Verbs

The Imperfect is extremely regular with only three exceptions throughout the entire language.

The only irregular verbs in the Imperfect:
ser
ir
ver
See how to conjugate these verbs in the Imperfect.

Ser

era éramos
eras erais
era eran
Examples:

El bolso era perfecto para completar su atuendo.
The bag was perfect to complete her attire.
Era la una.
It was one o'clock.
Ir

iba íbamos
ibas ibais
iba iban
Example:

Iba a contarte lo que vi.
I was going to tell you what I saw.
Ver

veía veíamos
veías veíais
veía veían
Example:

Las mujeres veían como jugaban sus hijos.
The women used to watch their children play.

31

Presente de indicativo:
tengo: I have
tienes: you have
tiene: you have
tenemos: we have
tienen: they have

Presente de indicativo:
tengo: I have
tienes: you have
tiene: you have
tenemos: we have
tienen: they have
In Spanish, the use of the Present Tense is quite similar to its English counterpart. This document explains the uses of the Present in depth and highlights important topics.

Use the Present Tense to talk about habitual actions.

Miro la tele todos los días.
I watch TV everyday.
Se afeita todas las semanas.
He shaves every week.
It also describes current actions and situations.

Llueve sobre la ciudad.
It's raining over the city.
Estamos aburridos.
We are bored.
The Present Tense expresses general truths.

Los osos duermen durante el invierno.
Bears sleep during winter.
En verano la ciudad es muy calurosa.
During summer, the city is extremely hot.
The Present Tense is used in conditionals, and in if clauses.

Si me lo pides, te ayudaré.
If you ask me, I'll help you.
Si tengo dinero, te prestaré.
If I have money, I will lend you some.
Unlike English, the Present Tense can express actions that will occur in the near future.

El avión aterriza en dos horas.
The plane will land in two hours.
Hoy a la noche voy al cine.
Tonight I'm going to the cinema.
The Present Tense is used for:
habitual actions
current actions and situations
general truths
conditionals
if clauses
actions that will occur in the near future
To emphasize that an action is taking place at the moment of speech, the Present Progressive is needed.
Conjugation

32

· tenerse en mucho / tenerse en poco, to think highly of OS / to underestimate OS.
· tenerse por, to consider OS, think OS:
, he thinks he's handsome.

· tenerse en mucho / tenerse en poco, to think highly of OS / to underestimate OS.
· tenerse por, to consider OS, think OS:
se tiene por guapo, he thinks he's handsome.

33

· , to think:
, I think they'll manage it.
· / , fam to be plastered.
· , fam to have it in for somebody.

· tener para sí, to think:
tengo para mí que lo lograrán, I think they'll manage it.
· tener una encima / tener una buena encima, fam to be plastered.
· tenerla tomada con alguien, fam to have it in for somebody.

34

· , to feel like:
, he doesn't feel like doing it.

· , to be enthusiastic.

· tener ganas de, to feel like:
no tiene ganas de hacerlo, he doesn't feel like doing it.

· tener ilusión, to be enthusiastic.

35

· , to have before one, have in front of one.

· , to be fond of.

· , to take pity (de, on).

· tener ante sí, to have before one, have in front of one.

· tener cariño a, to be fond of.

· tener compasión, to take pity (de, on).

36

· , to have before one's eyes.

· , to consider it beneath OS.

· , to keep up to date.

· tener a la vista, to have before one's eyes.

· tener a menos, to consider it beneath OS.

· tener al día, to keep up to date.

37

· ,-a, to make somebody happy.

· , to think it better.

· tener a alguien contento,-a, to make somebody happy.

· tener a bien, to think it better.

38

· , to be tired out:
, I'm tired out.

· ¿ ?, what's wrong with you?

· no tenerse, to be tired out:
estoy que no me tengo, I'm tired out.

· ¿qué tienes?, what's wrong with you?

39

· , to have only (got) to:

, you've only (got) to tell me.

· , to have nothing to do with.

· no tener más que, to have only (got) to:
no tienes más que decírmelo, you've only (got) to tell me.

· no tener nada que ver con, to have nothing to do with.

40

· fig. not to realize how lucky one is.

· no saber lo que uno tiene fig not to realize how lucky one is.

41

17 p ( ) to keep:

, keep calm.

18 p ( ) to control OS.

17 p (estarse) to keep:

tente tranquilo, keep calm.

18 p (dominarse) to control OS.

42

15 tenerse p ( ) to stand up:

, granddad can't stand up on his own.

16 p ( ) to stop.

15 tenerse p (sostenerse) to stand up:

el abuelo no puede tenerse solo, granddad can't stand up on his own.

16 p (detenerse) to stop.

43

14 tener que aux ( ) to have to, have got to, must:

, I must stay;

, he knows he's got to do it.

14 tener que aux (obligación) to have to, have got to, must:

tengo que quedarme, I must stay;
sabe que tiene que hacerlo, he knows he's got to do it.

44

13 vt ( ) to be in charge of, keep:

, she's in charge of the museum archive.

13 vt (ocuparse) to be in charge of, keep:

tiene el archivo del museo, she's in charge of the museum archive.

45

12 vt ( ) to consider, think:

, they think he's very smart.

12 vt (considerar) to consider, think:

lo tienen por muy listo, they think he's very smart.

46

11 vt ( ) to hold:

, to hold a meeting.

11 vt (celebrar) to hold:

tener una reunión, to hold a meeting.

47

10 vt (un hijo) to have:

, she had a baby.

10 vt (un hijo) to have:

tuvo un hijo, she had a baby.

48

8 vt (contener) to hold, contain.

9 vt (edad) to be:

, he is ten.

8 vt (contener) to hold, contain.

9 vt (edad) to be:

tiene diez años, he is ten.

49

7 vt (medir) to measure:

, the room is four metres square.

7 vt (medir) to measure:

la habitación tiene cuatro metros cuadrados, the room is four metres square.

50

6 vt (mantener) to keep:

, the rain has kept me up all night.

6 vt (mantener) to keep:

la lluvia me ha tenido despierta toda la noche, the rain has kept me up all night.

51

5 vt (sensación, sentimiento) to be, feel:

, I'm hungry;
, I'm cold.

5 vt (sensación, sentimiento) to be, feel:

tengo hambre, I'm hungry;
tengo frío, I'm cold.

52

4 vt (coger) to take:

, take your glass.

4 vt (coger) to take:

ten tu copa, take your glass.

53

3 vt (sostener) to hold:

¿ ?, what are you holding?

3 vt (sostener) to hold:

¿qué tienes en la mano?, what are you holding?

54

2 vt (poseer) to own, possess:

, he's got a flat on the Costa del Sol.

2 vt (poseer) to own, possess:

tiene un piso en la Costa del Sol, he's got a flat on the Costa del Sol.

55

, I have a problem;

, I've got an exam tomorrow;

tengo un problema, I have a problem;

tengo un examen mañana, I've got an exam tomorrow;

56

verb
1. (bien) (poseer) «Assets, transitive»

translations:
have, own, possess, be in possession of

synonyms:
poseer, ser dueño de, gozar de, estar en posesión de, disfrutar de, disponer de, andar bien de, contar con, quedar, reunir, tener a su haber, tener en su haber, tenerse

definitions:
Haber, poseer, ser propietaria o propietario, depositario o depositaria de algo. | Poseer, gozar, disfrutar. | Poseer, mandar, dominar o sujetar. || Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have ownership or possession of. | Have left. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone. | Have as a feature.

examples:
Yo tengo una casa: I have a house. |
TENGO buena salud. |
TIENE mucho poder.

quotable:
Tendré lo que ella tiene. | I'll have what she's having. Film lines

antonyms:
estar desprovisto de, no tener, estar ayuno de, faltar, hacer falta, necesitar, no tener nada de, quedarse sin, quedarse corto de, quedarse sin nada de, ser carente de, ser huérfano de, vacar de

verb
1. (bien) (poseer) «Assets, transitive»

translations:
have, own, possess, be in possession of

synonyms:
poseer, ser dueño de, gozar de, estar en posesión de, disfrutar de, disponer de, andar bien de, contar con, quedar, reunir, tener a su haber, tener en su haber, tenerse

definitions:
Haber, poseer, ser propietaria o propietario, depositario o depositaria de algo. | Poseer, gozar, disfrutar. | Poseer, mandar, dominar o sujetar. || Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have ownership or possession of. | Have left. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone. | Have as a feature.

examples:
Yo tengo una casa: I have a house. |
TENGO buena salud. |
TIENE mucho poder.

quotable:
Tendré lo que ella tiene. | I'll have what she's having. Film lines

antonyms:
estar desprovisto de, no tener, estar ayuno de, faltar, hacer falta, necesitar, no tener nada de, quedarse sin, quedarse corto de, quedarse sin nada de, ser carente de, ser huérfano de, vacar de

57

2. (accidente) (accidente) «Transitive»

translations:
have

definitions:
Haber, usado como auxiliar de otros verbos. | Poseer, gozar, disfrutar. | Poseer, mandar, dominar o sujetar. | Precisar o necesitar la realización de una cosa u ocuparse en ella. | Unido a algunos nombres de tiempo, emplear, sufrir, pasar algún espacio de él en un lugar o de cierto modo. || Be confronted with.

examples:
El carro tuvo un accidente: The car had an accident. |
TENGO buena salud. |
TIENE mucho poder. |
Mañana TENEMOS una reunión. |
HE TENIDO un día terrible.

quotable:
No puede tener a Dios como padre quien no tiene a la iglesia como su madre | He cannot have God for his father who has not the church for his mother. St Cyprian

2. (accidente) (accidente) «Transitive»

translations:
have

definitions:
Haber, usado como auxiliar de otros verbos. | Poseer, gozar, disfrutar. | Poseer, mandar, dominar o sujetar. | Precisar o necesitar la realización de una cosa u ocuparse en ella. | Unido a algunos nombres de tiempo, emplear, sufrir, pasar algún espacio de él en un lugar o de cierto modo. || Be confronted with.

examples:
El carro tuvo un accidente: The car had an accident. |
TENGO buena salud. |
TIENE mucho poder. |
Mañana TENEMOS una reunión. |
HE TENIDO un día terrible.

quotable:
No puede tener a Dios como padre quien no tiene a la iglesia como su madre | He cannot have God for his father who has not the church for his mother. St Cyprian

58

3. (hijos) (ser el padre de) «Family, transitive»

translations:
have, be the parent of

synonyms:
ser el padre de

definitions:
Give birth (to a newborn).

examples:

Yo tengo dos hijos I have

4. (pariente) «Family, transitive»

translations:
have

definitions:
Give birth (to a newborn). | Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone.

examples:

Tengo un primo: I have a cousin.

3. (hijos) (ser el padre de) «Family, transitive»

translations:
have, be the parent of

synonyms:
ser el padre de

definitions:
Give birth (to a newborn).

examples:

Yo tengo dos hijos I have

4. (pariente) «Family, transitive»

translations:
have

definitions:
Give birth (to a newborn). | Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone.

examples:

Tengo un primo: I have a cousin.

59

5. (idea) (disponer de) «Concepts & Ideas, transitive»

translations:
have, have got, get, have at one's disposal «Idiomatic»

synonyms:
disponer de, coger, ocurrirse, tener a su disposición, venirse

definitions:
Of mental or physical states or experiences. | Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have left. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone. | Have as a feature.

examples

Ella tuvo una gran idea. She had a great idea.

quotable:
El poder de la observación detallada es llamado comúnmente como cinismo por aquéllos que no lo poseen | The power of accurate observation is commonly called cynicism by those who have not got it. Bernard Shaw

antonyms:
carecer de, hacer falta, necesitar, no tener, quedarse sin, estar ayuno de, estar desprovisto de, estar perdiendo, estarse perdiendo de, ser carente de, vacar de

5. (idea) (disponer de) «Concepts & Ideas, transitive»

translations:
have, have got, get, have at one's disposal «Idiomatic»

synonyms:
disponer de, coger, ocurrirse, tener a su disposición, venirse

definitions:
Of mental or physical states or experiences. | Have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense. | Have left. | Have a personal or business relationship with someone. | Have as a feature.

examples

Ella tuvo una gran idea. She had a great idea.

quotable:
El poder de la observación detallada es llamado comúnmente como cinismo por aquéllos que no lo poseen | The power of accurate observation is commonly called cynicism by those who have not got it. Bernard Shaw

antonyms:
carecer de, hacer falta, necesitar, no tener, quedarse sin, estar ayuno de, estar desprovisto de, estar perdiendo, estarse perdiendo de, ser carente de, vacar de

60

6. (enfermedad) (estar con) «Pathology, Ailments & Disorders, transitive»
translations:
have, suffer from «Idiomatic»
synonyms:
estar enfermo de, padecer de, adolecer de, andar con «Idiomatic», aquejar, aquejarse de, estar afecto de, estar aquejado de, estar con, estar en un estado de, estar mal de, estar padeciendo de, pasar con, sufrir de, verse aquejado de

definitions:
Sufrir, realizar o padecer lo que significa el nombre a quien acompaña. || Suffer from; be ill with. | Of mental or physical states or experiences.

examples
Yo tengo paperas. I have |
TENER hambre.

6. (enfermedad) (estar con) «Pathology, Ailments & Disorders, transitive»
translations:
have, suffer from «Idiomatic»
synonyms:
estar enfermo de, padecer de, adolecer de, andar con «Idiomatic», aquejar, aquejarse de, estar afecto de, estar aquejado de, estar con, estar en un estado de, estar mal de, estar padeciendo de, pasar con, sufrir de, verse aquejado de

definitions:
Sufrir, realizar o padecer lo que significa el nombre a quien acompaña. || Suffer from; be ill with. | Of mental or physical states or experiences.

examples
Yo tengo paperas. I have |
TENER hambre.

61

7. (parte) (container) «Intellectual, transitive»
translations:
have, be made of, contain

synonyms:
estar hecho de, consistir de, contener, estar formado de, hacerse de, ser hecho de, constituirse de, estar compuesto de, estar compuesto por, estar constituido de, estar constituido por, ser de

examples:

Esto tiene azúcar: This has sugar.

7. (parte) (container) «Intellectual, transitive»
translations:
have, be made of, contain

synonyms:
estar hecho de, consistir de, contener, estar formado de, hacerse de, ser hecho de, constituirse de, estar compuesto de, estar compuesto por, estar constituido de, estar constituido por, ser de

examples:

Esto tiene azúcar: This has sugar.

62

8. (emoción) (estar teniendo) «Psychology, Feelings & Emotions, transitive»

translations:
have, be having, sustain

synonyms:
entretener, estar teniendo, anidar

examples:

Tengo un ataque de nervios: I am having a nervous fit.

quotable:
Cuando estás a salvo en casa, desearías tener una aventura; cuando estás teniendo una aventura, desearías estar a salvo en casa | When you're safe at home, you wish you were having an adventure; when you're having an adventure, you wish you were safe at home. Thornton Wilder

8. (emoción) (estar teniendo) «Psychology, Feelings & Emotions, transitive»

translations:
have, be having, sustain

synonyms:
entretener, estar teniendo, anidar

examples:

Tengo un ataque de nervios: I am having a nervous fit.

quotable:
Cuando estás a salvo en casa, desearías tener una aventura; cuando estás teniendo una aventura, desearías estar a salvo en casa | When you're safe at home, you wish you were having an adventure; when you're having an adventure, you wish you were safe at home. Thornton Wilder

63

9. (objeto) (sujetar) «Driving, transitive»
translations:
hold

synonyms:
agarrar, mantener, sujetar, mantener a la fuerza

definitions:
Mantener, apoyar, sujetar, sostener. || Hold the attention of. | Aim, point, or direct. | Have or hold in one's hands or grip. | Hold firmly, usually with one's hands. | Secure and keep for possible future use or application. | Keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., "keep clean".

examples:
Ella tiene su bolso: She holds her purse. |
TENME para que no me caiga.

antonyms:
desasir, dejar suelto, desempuñar, aflojar, dejar caer, expulsar, zafar, dejar en libertad «Literal», desencadenar, escaparse de las manos, escurrirse de entre las manos, irse de entre las manos, resbalarse, dar suelta a

9. (objeto) (sujetar) «Driving, transitive»
translations:
hold

synonyms:
agarrar, mantener, sujetar, mantener a la fuerza

definitions:
Mantener, apoyar, sujetar, sostener. || Hold the attention of. | Aim, point, or direct. | Have or hold in one's hands or grip. | Hold firmly, usually with one's hands. | Secure and keep for possible future use or application. | Keep in a certain state, position, or activity; e.g., "keep clean".

examples:
Ella tiene su bolso: She holds her purse. |
TENME para que no me caiga.

antonyms:
desasir, dejar suelto, desempuñar, aflojar, dejar caer, expulsar, zafar, dejar en libertad «Literal», desencadenar, escaparse de las manos, escurrirse de entre las manos, irse de entre las manos, resbalarse, dar suelta a

64

10. (aprobación) (contar con) «Transitive»
translations:
have, meet with

synonyms:
contar con, comprender

definitions:
Haber, poseer, ser propietaria o propietario, depositario o depositaria de algo. | Albergar, guardar, contener o comprender en sí.

examples:

Ella tiene su aprobación: She has |
Mi casa TIENE dos dormitorios.

10. (aprobación) (contar con) «Transitive»
translations:
have, meet with

synonyms:
contar con, comprender

definitions:
Haber, poseer, ser propietaria o propietario, depositario o depositaria de algo. | Albergar, guardar, contener o comprender en sí.

examples:

Ella tiene su aprobación: She has |
Mi casa TIENE dos dormitorios.

65

11. (implicar) «Intellectual, transitive»
translations:
have, involve

synonyms:
consistir en, encerrar, implicar, comportar

examples:

Este asunto tiene (implica) otras consecuencias...This has other implications

11. (implicar) «Intellectual, transitive»
translations:
have, involve

synonyms:
consistir en, encerrar, implicar, comportar

examples:

Este asunto tiene (implica) otras consecuencias...This has other implications

66

12. (servicio) (ofrecer) «Transitive»
translations:
offer, have

synonyms:
realizar, ofrecer, tener un servicio de

definitions:
Agree freely.

12. (servicio) (ofrecer) «Transitive»
translations:
offer, have

synonyms:
realizar, ofrecer, tener un servicio de

definitions:
Agree freely.

67

: misery loves company

: use to have

a la miseria le gusta tener compañía: misery loves company

acostumbrar tener: use to have

68

: act without the right to do so

: there you have it

: reach

actuar sin tener derecho a ello: act without the right to do so

ahí lo tienes: there you have it

alcanzar a tener: reach

69

: a must-have

: a must-have

algo imprescindible de tener: a must-have

algo que se debe tener: a must-have

70

: present no way out

aparentar no tener solución: present no way out

71

: here you are

: here you are

aquí tiene: here you are

aquí tienes: here you are

72

: it serves you right

: it serves you right

bien merecido lo tiene: it serves you right

bien merecido lo tienes: it serves you right

73

: as it were not enough to have to

como si fuera poco tener que: as it were not enough to have to

74

: with all you have

: with all I have

: with all he has

con todo lo que teneis: with all you have

con todo lo que tengo: with all I have

con todo lo que tiene: with all he has

75

: with all they have

: with all you have

con todo lo que tienen: with all they have

con todo lo que tienes: with all you have

76

: so that's what's going on

conque esas tenemos: so that's what's going on

77

: how old are you
: how old are you
: how old are you
: how old are you

cuántos años tiene: how old are you
cuántos años tiene Usted: how old are you
cuántos años tienes: how old are you
cuántos años tienes tú: how old are you

78

: quit having

: knowledge is power

dejar de tener: quit having

del saber viene el tener: knowledge is power

79

: beware of your enemies if they speak the truth

el enemigo sólo empieza a ser temible cuando empieza a tener razón: beware of your enemies if they speak the truth

80

: the more we have the more we want

el hombre más quiere cuanto más tiene: the more we have the more we want

81

: one sees in others the faults that one has

el que defectos ve defectos tiene: one sees in others the faults that one has

82

: the early man never borrows from the late man

el que siembra temprano, tiene: the early man never borrows from the late man

83

: home is where the heart is

: start to succeed

el verdadero hogar es donde uno tiene a los suyos: home is where the heart is

empezar a tener éxito: start to succeed

84

: that's the first I've heard about it

es la primera noticia que tengo: that's the first I've heard about it

85

: be about to have

: be having

estar a punto de tener: be about to have

estar teniendo: be having

86

: proceed with great caution

ir con mucho ten con ten: proceed with great caution

87

: debt is true poverty

la peor pobreza es tener deudas: debt is true poverty

88

: far from succeeding in

: get out of having to

lejos de tener éxito en: far from succeeding in

librarse de tener que: get out of having to

89

: dog license

: come in possession of

licencia para tener perro: dog license

llegar a tener: come in possession of

90

: what you see is what you get

: you name it and we've got it

: got it

lo que se ve es lo que se tiene: what you see is what you get

lo que usted quiera lo tenemos: you name it and we've got it

lo tengo: got it

91

: the have-nots

: the haves

los que no tienen: the have-nots

los que tienen: the haves

92

: if the cap fits, wear it

: while you can still move around hope can always be found

macho que respinga chimadura tiene: if the cap fits, wear it

mientras vas y vienes, vida tienes: while you can still move around hope can always be found

93

: broody

: woman of childbearing age
: women of childbearing age

mujer con ganas de tener hijos: broody

mujer en edad de tener hijos: woman of childbearing age
mujeres en edad de tener hijos: women of childbearing age

94

: there's no problem

: you can't get blood out of a turnip

nada tiene: there's no problem

nadie puede dar lo que no tiene: you can't get blood out of a turnip

95

: all happiness is in the mind

: you can't have the cake and eat it too

no es dichoso el que lo parece, sino el que por tal se tiene: all happiness is in the mind

no se puede tener todo: you can't have the cake and eat it too

96

: have no

: have no choice or alternative

: have no alternatives

no tener: have no

no tener alternativa: have no choice

no tener alternativas: have no alternatives

97

: have no authority

: have a receding chin

: have no fever

no tener autoridad: have no authority

no tener barbilla: have a receding chin

no tener calentura: have no fever

98

: have no connections

: have no right to

: have no debts

no tener conexiones: have no connections

no tener derecho de: have no right to

no tener deudas: have no debts

99

: have no expectations of

: have no excuse

: be out of stock of

no tener esperanzas de: have no expectations of

no tener excusa: have no excuse

no tener existencias de: be out of stock of

100

: have no faith in

: have no funds

: have no form

no tener fe en: have no faith in

no tener fondos: have no funds

no tener forma: have no form

101

: have no way of

: be unfounded

no tener forma de: have no way of

no tener fundamento: be unfounded

102

: be not funny

: have no equal

: be not important

no tener gracia: be not funny

no tener igual: have no equal

no tener importancia: be not important

103

: have no relation whatsoever

no tener incumbencia: have no relation whatsoever

104

: have no limitations

: have no mother

: have no possibility (or way or manner) of

no tener limitaciones: have no limitations

no tener madre: have no mother

no tener manera de: have no possibility of

105

: be out of

: have no way of

: have very little of

no tener más: be out of

no tener modo de: have no way of

no tener mucho de: have very little of

106

: have nothing

: have no

: have nothing to

no tener nada: have nothing

no tener nada de: have no

no tener nada de qué: have nothing to

107

: have no need to

: have not any

: stand no chance

no tener necesidad de: have no need to

no tener ninguno: have not any

no tener oportunidad: stand no chance

108

: have no chance (or opportunity) to

: be incapable of keeping one's word

: have no equal

no tener oportunidad de: have no chance to

no tener palabra: be incapable of keeping one's word

no tener par: have no equal

109

: be unparalleled

: bear no resemblance

: be not permitted to

no tener paralelo: be unparalleled
no tener parecido: bear no resemblance
no tener permitido: be not allowed to

110

: have no possibility of

: be calloused to (no predisposition)

no tener posibilidades de: have no possibility of

no tener predisposición de: be calloused to

111

: be in not much of a hurry

: serve no purpose

: have not anything to

no tener prisa: be in not much of a hurry

no tener propósito: serve no purpose

no tener qué: have not anything to

112

: have no roots

: be wrong

: be beyond repair

no tener raíces: have no roots

no tener razón: be wrong

no tener reparación: be beyond repair

113

: have no qualms about

: have no qualms about

no tener reparo en: have no qualms about
no tener reparos en: have no qualms about
no tener rival: have no peer

114

: have no peer

: have no equal

no tener rival: have no peer

no tener semejante: have no equal

115

: be no use

: have no feelings

no tener sentido: be no use

no tener sentimientos: have no feelings

116

: dislike

: be disliked

no tener simpatía a: dislike

no tener simpatías: be disliked

117

: have no solution

: have no time

: be of no use

no tener solución: have no solution

no tener tiempo: have no time

no tener utilidad: be of no use

118

: out of debt, out of danger

paga lo que debes, sanarás del mal que tienes: out of debt, out of danger

119

: seem to have no end

parecer no tener fin: seem to have no end

120

: person who pretends to have skills or knowledge that he or she does not possess

persona que aparenta poseer conocimientos o habilidades que no tiene: person who pretends to have skills or knowledge that he or she does not possess

121

: how old are you
: how old are you
: how old are you
: how old are you

qué edad tiene: how old are you
qué edad tiene Usted: how old are you
qué edad tienes: how old are you
qué edad tienes tú: how old are you

122

: what was your state of mind

: what was your state of mind
: what was your state of mind

qué estado de ánimo tenía: what was your state of mind

qué estado mental tenía: what was your state of mind

qué intención tenía: what was your state of mind

123

: you look a sight


: what time is it
: what time is it

qué fachas tienes: you look a sight

qué hora tiene: what time is it
qué hora tienes: what time is it

124

: lucky son of a gun
: must-have

qué potra tienes: lucky son of a gun

que se debe tener: must-have

125

: envy makes people put down what they want

quien menosprecia la vaca, ganas de comprarla tiene: envy makes people put down what they want

126

: first come, first served

quien primero viene, primero tiene: first come, first served

127

: proportional rate at which the capital is spent while waiting for a profit

razón proporcional a la que se gasta el capital mientras se espera a tener ganancias: proportional rate at which the capital is spent while waiting for a profit

128

: grieve and weep your sorrows away

sufra quien penas tiene: grieve and weep your sorrows away

129

: he must have his reasons

: we must have that in mind

sus razones tendrá: he must have his reasons

tenemos que tener presente eso: we must have that in mind

130

tener
1 vt (gen) to have, have got:

, he's got blond hair;
, we had a wonderful day.

tener
1 vt (gen) to have, have got:

tiene el pelo rubio, he's got blond hair;
tuvimos un día estupendo, we had a wonderful day.