Gastro intestinal anatomy (chiro essentials pg31-36) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Gastro intestinal anatomy (chiro essentials pg31-36) Deck (63):
1

What is the Gastro-intestinal tract embryological derivative

Endoderm

2

What are the three parts of the Embrylogical endoderm that give rise to the gastro-intestinal tract

Foregut
Midgut
hindgut

3

What does the foregut give rise to

Esophagus
Stomach
Proximal duodenum

4

What does the Midgut give rise to

Distal Duodenum
Small intestine
Proximal large intestine up to 2/3 transverse colon

5

what does the hindgut give rise to

Colon
Proximal half of anal canal

6

What sex is most likely to experience a Meckel's diverticulum

Males

7

What layer of the parietal peritoneum is innervated by T7

Xiphoid

8

What layer of the parietal peritoneum is innervated by T10

Umbilical level

9

What layer of the parietal peritoneum is innervated by L1

Inguinal region

10

What are the layers of the anterior abdominal wall

Skin
Subcutaneous tissue
Muscles
Transveralis fascia
Extraperitoneal fat
Parietal peritoneum

11

What layer of subcutaneous tissue of the anterior abdominal wall is coninuous with Colles fascia in the scrotum

Membranous layer (Scarpa)

12

What forms the anterior layer of the rectus sheath above the arcuate line

external oblique aponeurosis
Internal oblique aponeurosis

13

Wha forms the posterior layer of the rectus sheath above the arcuate line

Internal oblique aponeurosis
Transversalis fascia

14

What forms the anterior layer of the rectus sheath below the arcuate line

External oblique aponeurosis
internal oblique aponeurosis
Transveralis fascia

15

What forms the posterior layer of the rectus sheath belwo the arcute line

Transveralis fascia

16

Where is the arcuate line located

behind the rectus abdominus
Between umbilicus and symphysis

17

What are the two parts of the peritoneum

Parietal
Visceral

18

Which layer of the peritoneum is sensitive to pain

Parietal peritoneum

19

What are the retroperitoneal structures

Ascending colon
Descending colon
Pancreas
Adrenals
Rectum
Kidneys
Aorta
IVC
Duodenum

(AC DC PARK AID)

20

What kind of epithelium lines the stomach

Columnar epithelium

21

How many muscular layers are there in the stomach

3
outter - longitudinal
middle - circular
inner - oblique

22

What are the two main secretory cells in the stomach and what do they secrete

Chief cells - Pepsinogen
Parietal cells - HCL, intrinsic factor

23

What arteries give blood to the stomach

Left Gastric (celiac trunk)
Right Gastric (Common hepatic)
Left Gastro-omental (Splenic artery)
Right Gastro-omental (Gastro-duodinal)

24

What are the 4 parts of the duodenum in order

Superior
Descending
Horizontal
Ascending

25

What part of the duodenum does the common bile duct open into

The second

26

What ligament holds the ascending part of the duodenum in place

Suspensory ligament (treiz)

***it is attached to the diaphragm***

27

What part of the duodenum is intraperitoneal

First inch of the superior portion

28

What makes up the Biliary tree

Right and left hepatic ducts
Cystic duct
Cystic artery

29

What forms the common hepatic duct

Right and left hepatic ducts

30

What forms the common bile duct

Common hepatic duct
Cystic duct

31

what is the triangle that the cystic artery is found

Callot's triangle

32

Where does the gallbladder sit

The fossa between right and left quadrate lobes of the liver

33

What are the parts of the gallbladder

Fundus
Body
Neck
Cystic duct

34

What is the smooth muscle sphincter that guards the opening of the common bile duct and main pancreatic duct

Sphincter of oddi

35

what are the 2 parts of the small intestine

Jejunum
Ileum

36

Which part of the small intestine has more fat (mesentery)

Ileum

37

Which part of the small intestine is more vascualr

Jejunum

38

What are the lymphoid aggregates found in the small intestine

Pyers patches

39

What artery supplies the small intestine

Superior Mesenteric artery

40

What special structures are found in the large intestine but not the small intestine

Haustra
Teniae coli
Appendices epiplocia

41

What are the three parts of the colon

Ascending
Transverse
Descending

42

What is the most common location for the appendix

Behind cecum

43

What embryological structures derive the colon

Midgut
Hindgut

44

What arteries supply the colon that is derived from the midgut

Superior mesenteric

45

What arery supplies the colon that is derived from the hindgut

Inferior mesenteric

46

Where do te lymphatics of the colon drain into

Pericolic node --> paracolic node -->para-aortic node

47

What part of the recutm does not have any peritoneum covering it

Lower third

48

What give blood to the rectum

Superior rectal branch (inferior mesenteric)

49

Where do the lyphatics of the rectum drain into

Inferior mesenteric nodes

50

When does the rectum turn into the anal canal

When it passes through he pelvic diaphragm

51

What part of the recurm is dilated

The lower part (ampulla)

52

What are the embryological origins of the anal canal

Endoderm
Ectoderm

53

What is the junction between the endoderm and ectoderm derivatives of the anal canal

Pectineal line

54

What are the longitudinal fold above the pectineal line

Columns of Morgagni

55

Where do anal glands open up behind

Vavles of Ball

56

What is the smooth muscle sphincer of the anal canal

Internal circular sphincter

57

What is the skeletal muscle sphincter of the anal canal

External sphincter

58

What nerve supplies the external anal sphincter

Inferior rectal branch of the pudendal nerve

59

What part of the ana canal is insensitive to pain

Above the pectineal line (hindgut/endoderm)

60

What supplies blood to the anal canal above the pectineal line

inferior mesenteric artery

61

What part of the anal canal is sensitive to pain

Below the pectineal line (ectoderm)

62

What supplies blood to the anal canal below the pectineal line

Inferior rectal branch of the internal pudendal artery

63

Where do the lymphatics of the anal canal below the pectineal line drain into

Superficial inguinal nodes in the groin