General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Deck (14)
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1
Q
Types of symptoms of schizophrenia
A
Positive symptoms: Delusions, hallucinations.
Negative symptoms: Withdrawal, apathy, lack of motivation
2
Q
Neuronal pathways responsible for symptoms in schizophrenia
A
Positive symptoms: Excessive activity in mesolimbic pathways.
Negative symptoms: Insufficient activity in mesocortical pathways.
3
Q
Mechanism of the therapeutic effect of antipsychotic drugs
A
Competitive blockade of dopamine and serotonin receptors
4
Q
Changes in dopamine neurotransmission caused by antipsychotics
A
1. Increased synthesis, release and metabolism.
2. Depolarization blockade, inactivation of dopaminergic neurons.
3. Dopamine up-regulation and supersensitivity to dopamine agonists.
5
Q
Supersensitivity can cause...
A
Tarditive dyskinesia (delayed type extrapyramidal symptoms)
6
Q
Adverse effects of all antipsychotics
A
Peripheral alpha1-blockade: Dizziness, hypotension, reflex tachycardia.
Peripheral muscarinic blockade: Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention.
Central histamine 1 blockade: Drowsiness, weight gain.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
7
Q
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome - symptoms and treatment
A
Muscle rigidity, elevated temperature, altered consciousness, autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, urinary and fecal incontinence).
Treatment: dantrolene, supportive care.
8
Q
Antipsychotics - indications
A
Schizophrenia, psychosis (drug-induced, mania during bipolar disease)
Agitated pts with e.g. dementia and mental retardation.
Phenothiazines: Some for vomiting and nausea.
9
Q
Treatment for acute EPSs
A
Benztropine, diphenhydramine, amantadine.
10
Q
Treatment for tarditive dyskinesia
A
Off label: amantadine, dopamine receptor agonists, clozapine, physostigmine, benzodiazepine.
11
Q
Withdrawal syndrome from antipsychotics
A
Insomnia, nightmares.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Restlessness
Salivation, sweating.
12
Q
Groups of drugs used in affective disorder
A
Antidepressants and mood-stabilizers
13
Q
MOA for antidepressant drugs
A
Increase serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmission.
Increased synaptic concentration of serotonin, cause down-regulation of presynaptic autoreceptors. Increased firing rate of serotoergic neurons.
14
Q
Drugs for bipolar disorder
A
Lithium
Benzodiazepines
Antipsychotics