General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Deck (14)
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1
Q

Types of symptoms of schizophrenia

A

Positive symptoms: Delusions, hallucinations.

Negative symptoms: Withdrawal, apathy, lack of motivation

2
Q

Neuronal pathways responsible for symptoms in schizophrenia

A

Positive symptoms: Excessive activity in mesolimbic pathways.
Negative symptoms: Insufficient activity in mesocortical pathways.

3
Q

Mechanism of the therapeutic effect of antipsychotic drugs

A

Competitive blockade of dopamine and serotonin receptors

4
Q

Changes in dopamine neurotransmission caused by antipsychotics

A
  1. Increased synthesis, release and metabolism.
  2. Depolarization blockade, inactivation of dopaminergic neurons.
  3. Dopamine up-regulation and supersensitivity to dopamine agonists.
5
Q

Supersensitivity can cause…

A

Tarditive dyskinesia (delayed type extrapyramidal symptoms)

6
Q

Adverse effects of all antipsychotics

A

Peripheral alpha1-blockade: Dizziness, hypotension, reflex tachycardia.
Peripheral muscarinic blockade: Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention.
Central histamine 1 blockade: Drowsiness, weight gain.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

7
Q

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome - symptoms and treatment

A

Muscle rigidity, elevated temperature, altered consciousness, autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, urinary and fecal incontinence).
Treatment: dantrolene, supportive care.

8
Q

Antipsychotics - indications

A

Schizophrenia, psychosis (drug-induced, mania during bipolar disease)
Agitated pts with e.g. dementia and mental retardation.
Phenothiazines: Some for vomiting and nausea.

9
Q

Treatment for acute EPSs

A

Benztropine, diphenhydramine, amantadine.

10
Q

Treatment for tarditive dyskinesia

A

Off label: amantadine, dopamine receptor agonists, clozapine, physostigmine, benzodiazepine.

11
Q

Withdrawal syndrome from antipsychotics

A

Insomnia, nightmares.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Restlessness
Salivation, sweating.

12
Q

Groups of drugs used in affective disorder

A

Antidepressants and mood-stabilizers

13
Q

MOA for antidepressant drugs

A

Increase serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmission.
Increased synaptic concentration of serotonin, cause down-regulation of presynaptic autoreceptors. Increased firing rate of serotoergic neurons.

14
Q

Drugs for bipolar disorder

A

Lithium
Benzodiazepines
Antipsychotics