General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Flashcards Preview

22 Psychotherapeutic drugs > General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder > Flashcards

Flashcards in General about schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar disorder Deck (14)
Loading flashcards...
1

Types of symptoms of schizophrenia

Positive symptoms: Delusions, hallucinations.
Negative symptoms: Withdrawal, apathy, lack of motivation

2

Neuronal pathways responsible for symptoms in schizophrenia

Positive symptoms: Excessive activity in mesolimbic pathways.
Negative symptoms: Insufficient activity in mesocortical pathways.

3

Mechanism of the therapeutic effect of antipsychotic drugs

Competitive blockade of dopamine and serotonin receptors

4

Changes in dopamine neurotransmission caused by antipsychotics

1. Increased synthesis, release and metabolism.
2. Depolarization blockade, inactivation of dopaminergic neurons.
3. Dopamine up-regulation and supersensitivity to dopamine agonists.

5

Supersensitivity can cause...

Tarditive dyskinesia (delayed type extrapyramidal symptoms)

6

Adverse effects of all antipsychotics

Peripheral alpha1-blockade: Dizziness, hypotension, reflex tachycardia.
Peripheral muscarinic blockade: Dry mouth, constipation, blurred vision, urinary retention.
Central histamine 1 blockade: Drowsiness, weight gain.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

7

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome - symptoms and treatment

Muscle rigidity, elevated temperature, altered consciousness, autonomic dysfunction (tachycardia, diaphoresis, tachypnea, urinary and fecal incontinence).
Treatment: dantrolene, supportive care.

8

Antipsychotics - indications

Schizophrenia, psychosis (drug-induced, mania during bipolar disease)
Agitated pts with e.g. dementia and mental retardation.
Phenothiazines: Some for vomiting and nausea.

9

Treatment for acute EPSs

Benztropine, diphenhydramine, amantadine.

10

Treatment for tarditive dyskinesia

Off label: amantadine, dopamine receptor agonists, clozapine, physostigmine, benzodiazepine.

11

Withdrawal syndrome from antipsychotics

Insomnia, nightmares.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Restlessness
Salivation, sweating.

12

Groups of drugs used in affective disorder

Antidepressants and mood-stabilizers

13

MOA for antidepressant drugs

Increase serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmission.
Increased synaptic concentration of serotonin, cause down-regulation of presynaptic autoreceptors. Increased firing rate of serotoergic neurons.

14

Drugs for bipolar disorder

Lithium
Benzodiazepines
Antipsychotics