General and Systemic Pathology Flashcards Preview

DMD 5243 > General and Systemic Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in General and Systemic Pathology Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the possible outcomes for a cell that undergoes stress and injurious stimuli

1. It can adapt to the stress
2. it can become injured
3. it can reverse the injury and return to normal
4. if the injury is irreversible then the cell will die

2

What determines if cell injury is reversible or not

how severe and lasting the injury is

3

What are the two types of cell death

necrosis
apoptosis

4

What are the reversible changes of a cell ,which things cause ADAPTATION

1. atrophy
2. hypertrophy
3. hyperplasia
4. metaplasia

5

What is atrophy

shrinkage in the size of the cell by loss of cell substance

6

What can cause atrophy of a cell

1. disuse
2. inadequate nutrients
3. lack of endocrine supply
4. poor blood supply
5. denervation
6. aging

7

What is involution

a reduced number of cells

8

what causes involution

1. disuse
2. inadequate nutrients
3. lack of endocrine supply
4. poor blood supply
5. denervation
6. aging
(same things as atrophy)

9

What happens when you have had atrophy or involution and then the harmful stimulus ends

cellular regrowth back to stable tissue

10

what is hypertrophy

increased cell size, and thus increased size of the organ

11

what is hyperplasia

increased number of cells, and thus increased size of the organ

12

hypertrophy and hyperplasia are caused by the same stimuli, what is that stimuli

1. increased work demand
2. metabolic demand
3. excess endocrine stimulus
4. persisting injury

13

What happens with a cell that has had hypertrophy and hyperplasia after the simulus ends

a reduction in number of cells, or the size of the cells

14

What is metaplasia

replacement of one cell type by another cell type (usually a less differentiated cell

15

what is dysplasia

more severe version of metaplasia

16

what causes metaplasia

persisting injury

17

What can happen to function of the cell in metaplasia

you can have loss of normal cell functions

18

What causes dysplasia

persistent SEVERE injury or irritation

19

How do you recognize dysplasia when compaired to metaplasia

dysplasia will have many more cells, more replacement of cells

20

What determines how much fat your body stores? how many adipocytes you have, or the size of your adipocytes

the size of your adipocytes

21

What determines your bodies ability to store fat

1. gestatinal birth weight
2. maternal insulin
3. in utero toxin exposure

22

Normally adipocytes undergo hypertrophy, can they also under hyperplasia

yes when adults have hit 170% of their body weight

23

What are the 10 causes of cellular INJURY

1. oxygen deprivation
2. chemical agents
3. infectious agents
4. immunologic reactions
5. genetic factors
6. nutritional imbalances
7. physical agents
8. radiation
9. calcium
10. aging

24

What is the most common cause of cellular injury

oxygen deprivation

25

what is ischemia

the lack of oxygen in a cell or tissue due to lack of blood flow to it

26

What is hypoxia

low oxygen to the cell

27

what is anoxia

no oxygen to the cell

28

What causes ischemia

hypoxia and anoxia

29

how does oxygen depletion or ischemia lead to cellular damage

1. low O2 leads to low ATP
2. low ATP leads to sodium-potassium pump, and calcium pump failing
3. the imbalance of ions (Na. K. and Ca) cause water to enter the cell, and the cell to swell
4. if this isn't fixed then the cell will lyse

30

What is reperfusion injury

injury that occurs with rapid restoration of blood to ischemic tissues.