Information Needed to answer Bikmans test questions Flashcards Preview

DMD 5243 > Information Needed to answer Bikmans test questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Information Needed to answer Bikmans test questions Deck (112)
Loading flashcards...
1

What disorder is associated with dry, crusty, black sores on toes and feet

Dry gangrenous necrosis

2

what causes gangrenous necrosis

hypoxia

3

why does hypoxia lead to a damaged cell

1. a lack of Oxygen means that ATP can't be produced from the ETC chain.
2. Low ATP means that the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps can't work.
3. cell will swell, and if not corrected the cell will lyse

4

what happens to the mitochondria in a hypoxia condition

the mitochondria swell as well

5

What are the three main changes that take place in necrosis

1. nuclear changes
2. cytoplasmic changes
3. calcification

6

What are the nuclear changes that take place in necrosis

Pyknosis
Karyorrhexis
Karyolysis

7

what is pyknosis

the clumping of chromatin in the nucleus

8

what is karyorrhexis

fragmentation of the nucleus

9

what is karyolysis

nuclear dissolution and chromatin lysis

10

What is the main cytoplasmic change associated with necrosis

increased eosinophilia (seen as red stains)

11

What causes the calcification associated with necrosis

dead cells that are converted into fatty acids (instead of being phagocytosed) those fatty acids attract a lot of calcium and calcification results

12

What are the two types of calcification

dystrophic calcification
metabolic calcification

13

what is the difference between dystrophic and metabolic calcification

metabolic can occur in any tissue and is a result of hypercalcemia
dystrophic occurs with necrosis, often in atheroma. not related to hypercalcemia

14

What are the different types of necrosis

coagulative necrosis
liquefactive necrosis
caseous necrosis
fat necrosis
fibrinoid necrosis
gangrenous necrosis

15

what is coagulative necrosis and what tissues does it affect

it is protein denaturation (albumin becomes opaque)
it affects the kidneys, spleen, heart, and adrenal glands

16

what is liquefactive necrosis and what tissues does it affect

it affects the hydrolytic enzymes
it affects the neurons and glial cells of the brain

17

What is caseous necrosis and what tissues does it affect

it is a combination of coagulative and liquefactive necrosis, it often forms a granuloma

18

What is fat necrosis, and what tissues does it affect

it affects the action of lipases
it affects the pancreas, breast, and abdominal organs

19

What is fibrinoid necrosis, and what tissues does it affect

it is complexes of antigens and antibodies that are deposited in the walls of arteries

20

What are the two types of gangrenous necrosis

wet and dry

21

what tissues does gangrenous necrosis affect

the limbs, not organs

22

what is typical of dry gangrenous necrosis

insufficient blood
coagulative
dry, crusty, and black skin

23

What is typical of wet gangrenous necrosis

infection
liquefactive
cold, swollen, black
Foul odor (pus)

24

what are the two types of inflammation

chronic and acute

25

what kind of cells will you see in the tissues in acute inflammation

mostly neutrophils

26

what kind of cells will you see in the tissues in chronic inflammation

monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes

27

What do monocytes look like

1. Large
2. oddly shaped
3. nucleus doesn't fill the entire space and isn't segmented

28

what do lymphocytes look like

1. the nucleus almost fills the entire space and isn't segmented

29

what do neutrophils look like

1. has a polymorphuous (PMN or segmented) nucleus
2. few neutral granulocytes

30

What do eosinophils look like

1. a PMN cell
2. many red granulocytes