General Chemistry Chapter 2: The Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in General Chemistry Chapter 2: The Periodic Table Deck (20)
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1

What are the rows in the periodic table called?

Periods

2

What are the columns in the periodic table called?

Groups

3

What do all the elements in a group have in common?

They all have the same valence shell electron configuration.

4

What are the three types of elements on the periodic table?

Metals, nonmetals and metalloids

5

Describe properties of metals

Metals are shiny (lustrous), conduct electricity well and are malleable

6

Describe properties of nonmetals

Nonmetals are dull, poor conductors of electricity and are brittle.

7

Describe properties of metalloids

Metalloids possess characteristics of both metals and nonmetals and are found in a stair-step pattern starting with boron.

8

What is the effective nuclear charge?

The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge experienced by electrons in the valence shell and forms the foundation for all other periodic trends.

9

What is the trend for effective nuclear charge?

Zeff increases from left to right across a period with little change in the value from top to bottom in a group. Valence electrons become increasingly separated from the nucleus as the principal energy level, n, increases from top to bottom.

10

What is the trend for atomic radius in a periodic table?

The trend is that it decreases from left to right across a period and increases from top to bottom.

11

What is the trend for ionic radius?

Cations are smaller than their corresponding neutral atom, anions are larger than their corresponding neutral atom.

12

Where do the largest nonmetallic ionic radii and the smallest metallic ionic radii exist?

At the metalloid boundary.

13

What is the ionization energy and what is its periodic trend?

It is the amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from the valence shell of a gaseous species; it increases from left to right across a period and decreases from top to bottom within a group.

14

What is the electron affinity and what is its periodic trend?

It is the amount of energy released when a gaseous species gains an electron in its valence shell; it increases from left to right across a period and decreases from top to bottom in a group.

15

What is electronegativity and what is its periodic trend?

It is a measure of the attractive force of the nucleus for electrons within a bond; it increases from left to right across a period and decreases from top to bottom in a group.

16

What are specific chemical properties of the alkali metals?

Oxidation state of +1
Prefer to lose an electron to achieve noble gas-like configurations
W/AEM, they are the most reactive

17

What are specific chemical properties of the alkaline earth metals?

Oxidation state of +2
Prefer to lose 2 electrons
Highly reactive

18

What are specific chemical properties of the chalcogens?

Oxidation states of -2 or +6
Very biologically important

19

What are specific chemical properties of the noble gases?

fully filled valence shell in their standard state and prefer not to give up or take on additional electrons.
Very high ionization energies & virtually nonexistent electronegativities and electron affinities.

20

What are the specific chemical properties of the transition metals?

Take on multiple oxidation states and can form colorful complexes with nonmetals in solution.