Flashcards in General Chemistry Chapter 7: Thermochemistry Deck (24)
exchange neither matter nor energy with the environment
exchange energy, but not matter with the environment
exchange both energy and matter with the environment
Occur at a constant temperature
exchange no heat with the environment
occur at a constant pressure
occur at a constant volume
describe the physical properties of an equilibrium state; they are pathway independent and include pressure, density, temperature, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy and entropy
defined as 298 K, 1 atm and 1 M concentrations
It's most prevalent from under standard conditions; standard enthalpy, standard entropy and standard free energy are all calculated under standard conditions.
At temperatures about the critical point:
liquid and gas phases are indistinguishable.
All three phases of matter exist in equilibrium
graphs the phases and phase equilibria as a function of temperature and pressure
a scaled measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
The transfer of energy that results from differences of temperature between two substances.
The measure of the potential energy of a system found in intermolecular attractions and chemical bonds
states that the total change in potential energy of a system is equal to the changes of potential energies of the individual steps of the process
While often though of as disorder, it is a measure of the degree to which energy has been spread throughout a system or between a system and its surroundings
What is the units for Entropy?
heat transferred per mole per unit K
When in entropy maximized?
reaction proceeds forward (spontaneous)
G = 0
reaction is in dynamic equilibrium
G > 0
reaction proceeds in reverse direction (nonspontaneous)