Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Aldehydes and ketones II Flashcards Preview

MCAT Gen Chem and O Chem > Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Aldehydes and ketones II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Chapter 7: Aldehydes and ketones II Deck (13)
Loading flashcards...
1

Alpha carbon

carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon

2

Alpha hydrogens

hydrogens attached to the alpha carbon

3

Are alpha hydrogens acidic?

yes -- can be removed by a strong base

4

What stabilizes the enolate?

resonance with the carbonyl

5

Why are ketones less reactive?

Steric hindrance and alpha-carbanion destabilization

6

What are the two forms that aldehydes and ketones exist in?

keto forms and enol forms

7

Tautomers

isomers that can be interconverted by moving a hydrogen and a double bond. The keto and the enol are tautomers to each other.

8

Michael addition

an enolate attacks an alpha-beta-unsaturated carbonyl creating a bond.

9

Kinetic enolate

favored by fast, irreversible reactions at higher temperatures with weaker, smaller, bases.

10

Enamines

tautomers of imines

11

Aldol condensation

the aldehyde or ketone acts as both nucleophilic and electrophilic, resulting in an aldol

12

Aldol

contains both aldehyde and alcohol functional groups

13

Retro-aldol reactions

The reverse of aldol condensations, catalyzed by heat and base, bond between alpha and beta carbon is cleaved