Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Analyzing Organic Reactions Flashcards Preview

MCAT Gen Chem and O Chem > Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Analyzing Organic Reactions > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Chapter 4: Analyzing Organic Reactions Deck (55)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is a lewis acid?

electron acceptors

2

What is a lewis base?

electron donor

3

What is a B-L acid?

proton donor

4

What is a B-L base?

proton acceptor

5

What are amphoteric molecules?

can act as either acids or based, depending on reaction conditions. ex. water

6

What is the acid dissociation constant?

Ka - a measure of acidity, the equilibrium constant corresponding to the dissociation of an acid into HA into a proton and its conjugate base

7

What is pKa?

the negative logarithm of Ka --- the lower the pKa, the stronger the acid

8

What is the pKa trend in the periodic table?

decreases down the periodic table and increases with electronegativity

9

What are alpha hydrogens?

hydrogens connected to an alpha carbon (carbon adjacent to a carbonyl

10

What are common acidic functional groups?

alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and c.a. derivatives

11

What are common basic functional groups?

Amines and amides

12

What are nucleophiles?

nucleus loving and contain lone pairs or pi bonds. They have increased electron density and often carry a necative charge.

13

What can affect nucleophility?

charge, electronegativity, steric hinderance and the solvent

14

What are common nucleophiles?

amino groups

15

What are electrophiles?

electron-loving and contain a positive charge or are positively polarized.

16

What are common electrophiles?

alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids & derivatives

17

What are leaving groups?

molecular fragments that retain the electrons after heterolysis. good leaving groups can stabilize additional charge through resonance or induction. Weak bases make good leaving groups.

18

What is heterolysis?

opposite of coordinate covalent bond formation - a bond is broken and both electrons are given to one of the two products.

19

What types are almost never leaving groups?

Alkanes and hydrogen ions because they form reactive anions

20

What are the steps of a unimolecular nucleophilic substitution?

1. leaving group leaves, forming a carbocation, an ion with a positively charged carbon atom.
2. the nucleophile attacks the planar carbocation from either side, leading to a racemic mixture of products

21

What do Sn1 reactions prefer?

more substituted carbons because the alkyl groups can donate electron density and stabilize the positive charge of the carbocation.

22

What is the rate of an Sn1 reaction dependent on?

only on the concentration of the substrate

23

What is a bimolecular Sn2 nucleophilic substitution?

Happens in one step - nucleophile attacks at the same time as the leaving group leaves.

24

What happens to the stereochemistry in an Sn2 reaction?

Nucleophile performs a backside attack, which leads to an inversion of stereochemistry.

25

What happens to the configuration if the incoming nucleophile and the leaving group have the same priority in the molecule?

Then absolute configuration is changed from R to S or vice versa.

26

What is the oxidation state?

The charge that an atom would have if all of its bonds were completely ionic

27

What is the lowest and highest oxidation state of carbon?

lowest - CH4
highest - CO2

28

What is the order of functional groups oxidation from most to least?

Carboxylic acids & derivatives > aldehydes > ketones and imines > alcohols > alkyl halides > amines

29

What is oxidation?

increase in oxidation state and is assisted by oxidizing agents

30

What are oxidizing agents?

accept electrons and are reduced in the process. They have a high affinity for electrons or an unusually high oxidation state. They often contain a metal and a large number of oxygens.

31

How can primary alcohols be oxidized?

to aldehydes by PCC
to carboxylic acids by CrO3 or Na2Cr2O7 or K2Cr2O7

32

How can secondary alcohols be oxidized?

to ketones by most oxidizing agents

33

How can aldehydes be oxidized to carboxylic acids?

most oxidizing agents

34

What is reduction?

Decrease in oxidation state and is assisted by reducing agents

35

What are reducing agents?

donate electrons and are oxidized in the process. They have low electronegativity and ionization energy. They often contain a metal and a large number of hydrides

36

How can aldehydes, ketones and c.a. by reduced to alcohols?

LiAlH4

37

How can amides be reduced to amines?

LiAlH4

38

How can esters be reduced to a pair of alcohols?

LiAlH4

39

Where do nucleophile and electrophile generally act?

the highest-priority (most oxidized) functional group

40

What are used to protect leaving groups?

Diols are used to protect for aldehydes and ketone carbonyls
Alcohols can be protected by conversion to tert-butyl ethers

41

What are 6 steps to solving chemical reactions?

1. know nomenclature
2. identify the functional groups
3. identify the other reagents
4. Identify the most reactive functional group
5. Identify the first step of the reaction
6. consider stereoselectivity

42

What are common protic solvents?

carboxylic acids
ammonia/amines
water/alcohols

43

What are common aprotic solvents?

dimethylformamide (DMF), DMSO, acetone

44

Reagent: Alcohol to aldehyde

PCC or CrO3/pyrimidine

45

Reagent: Alcohol to Ketone

PCC or CrO3/pyrimidine

46

Reagent: Aldehyde to C.A.

H2Cr2O4, KMnO2, H2O2

47

Reagent: Alcohol to C.A.

H2Cr2O4, KMnO2

48

Reagent: Alkene to Carboxylic acid

KMnO4

49

Reagent: Alkene to Aldehyde/Ketone

O3, then Zn
O3, then CH3SCH3

50

Reagent: Alkene to C.A./Ketone

O3, then H2O2
KMnO4, heat, H3O+

51

Reagent: Alkyne to C.A.

O3, then H2O2
KMnO4, heat, H3O+

52

Reagent: Alkene to Diol

OsO4
KMnO4, HO-

53

Reagent: Alkene to Epoxide

mCPBA

54

Reagent: Diol to Aldehyde

NaIO4
Pb(OAc)4
HIO4

55

Reagent: Ketone to Ester

mCPBA