Organic Chemistry Chapter 6: Aldehydes and Ketones 1 Flashcards Preview

MCAT Gen Chem and O Chem > Organic Chemistry Chapter 6: Aldehydes and Ketones 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organic Chemistry Chapter 6: Aldehydes and Ketones 1 Deck (12)
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1

Prefix and suffix for aldehydes

- al and oxo-

2

Prefix and suffix for ketones

- one and oxo-/keto-

3

How is the reactivity of a carbonyl defined?

polarity of the double bond

4

What happens in a nucleophillic attack on carbonyl?

electrons in pi bond are moved to oxygen

5

Nucleophillic attack and no good leaving group?

remains open and it protonated to form an alcohol

6

Nucleophillic attack and good leaving group?

carbonyl will reform & kick off the leaving group

7

What happens in hydration?

water adds to carbonyl, forming a geminal diol

8

Alcohol + aldehyde

hemiacetal -- again = ketal

9

Alcohol + ketone

hemiketal -- again = ketal

10

Nitrogen/nitrogen derivatives + carbonyls

imines, oximes, hyrdrazones and semicarbazones

11

What can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids?

KMnO4, CrO3, Ag2O or H2O2

12

What can reduce ketones and aldehydes to alcohols?

LiAlH4 and NaBH4