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Flashcards in Geney Stuff Deck (45):
1

The first DNA model made in 1953 was made by _____ and ____ with the help of _________

James Watson
Francis Crick
Rosalind Franklin

2

What did the model look like (like a spiral stair case or a twisted ladder)

Double helix

3

Rungs or steps of the DNA are

Nitrogen bases

4

3 parts of DNA molecule

1. Phosphate
2. Deoxyribose
3. Nitrogen base

5

Base pairs

A= Adenine
T= Thymine
C= Cytosine
G= Guanine

6

Which base pairs pair up

Adenine and thymine
Cytosine and Guanine

7

What is DNA replication

When DNA makes a copy of itself

8

During what process(es) dies DNA rep happen

Mitosis and Meiosis

9

What does DNA stand for

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

10

DNA rep step 1: DNA _____ an enzyme, breaks bonds between nitrogen bases so the two sides unwind and separate (unzip)

Helicase

11

DNA rep step 2: new _______ floating in nucleus pair with bases on each side.

Nucleotides

12

DNA polymerase

Helps attach nucleotides

13

Sections on a chromosome that code for a particular trait are called _________. They are expressed by directing the making of specific _________.

Gene
Proteins

14

Heredity

The passing of traits from parent to offspring

15

Genetics

The science that studies the laws of heredity

16

Father of genetics

Gregor Mendel

17

What plant did he test on

Garden pea plant

18

He created a new branch of science called

Genetics

19

Allele

Different forms a gene may have a trait

20

Pure

Refers to an organism or cell in which the alleles for a pair a pair traits are identical

21

Mendel _____ _______ pea plants to observe results when he crossed two _______ alleles

Cross pollinated
Different

22

Ex. Pure tall plant (_ _) x Pure short plant (_ _) a tool called the ____ _______ is used to predict the results

TT
tt
Punnett Square

23

Results: ___ (ALL) of the offspring from pure parents plants only show ONE of the alleles of the trait. This is called ______ or _________

100%
Hybrid
Heterozygous

24

Although one of each allele is presenting the offspring's genes, only ___ of the traits will show up, the other will be _______ or hidden.

One
Masked

25

Dominant

The form of the that appears to dominate or "show up" (masks other form)

26

Recessive

The form of the trait that can be hidden or "masked" by the dominant trait

27

Homozygous

Or PURE = same letters exactly

28

Heterozygous

Or HYBRID = different letters (one capital one lowercase)

29

The only time a recessive trait will appear is when it is

Pure/homozygous

30

Any time the dominant form of the trait is present it will ______ ____

Show up

31

Genotype

The actual genetic makeup of the alleles (the letters)

32

Phenotype

What thing looks like (the words)

33

Incomplete dominance

Neither trait is dominant; blending of phenotype seen in the heterozygote. (Red thing + White thing = pink thing)

34

Codominance

both alleles show up in offspring (dots on cows, multiple feather colors on chickens)

35

Some traits are controlled by multiple _____ and are called ______ traits

Alleles
Polygenic

36

This happens when groups of gene pairs work together to produce a _______ trait. Eye color controlled by _ genes and skin color controlled by ___ genes

Single
8
378

37

Mutations can _______ change DNA. This can be ______ or beneficial.

Permanent
Harmful

38

Color blindness is a ____-linked disorder

Sex

39

Females are represented by ______

Circles

40

Males are represented by

Squares

41

A marriage is represented by

A short horizontal line

42

Children connected by a

bracket

43

Child inherited two dominant alleles for the trait, shape is

completely filled.

44

Child has inherited one dominant one recessive allele shape is

Half filled

45

If child has two recessive alleles the shape

Empty