Flashcards in Genitourinary Apparatus, Pelvis, and Perineum Deck (71)
What is the reasoning for the positioning of the R kidney lower than L kidney?
large right lobe of the liver (inferior rt. kidney in line with L3, superior of left kidney in line with T12)
What is the respective representation of the two types of nephrons in the kidney?
Other than location, what is the primary difference between the flow through each nephron?
The amount of blood that circulates through them are the same, but the pressures are different (cortical has higher pressure than juxtamedullary).
What sensations do the kidneys experience?
pain (parenchyma), pressure (parenchyma), and stretch (capsule)
Nerves to the kidneys and ureters.
autonomic plexuses - renal (least splanchnic), abdominal aortic, superior hypogastric, retrograde to spinal ganglia (T11-L2 - sensory to sympathetic)
celiac, abdominopelvic, Pre and Paravertebral sympathetic fibers (T10-L1) to medulla
The adrenal gland cortex arises from ________, while the medulla arises from _________.
Zones of the adrenal gland cortex from innermost to outermost.
reticularis, fasciculata, glomerulosa
The glomerulosa of the adrenal gland secretes?
This type of tissue is found in the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
transitional epithelium (stratified epithelium)
Distension capabilities of the bladder are controlled by this muscle, muscularis externa of the urinary bladder, and positioned in a retroperitoneal fashion.
Urinary bladder 4 layers from innermost to outermost.
Sympathetic innervation of the bladder.
With low bladder volumes, the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated (internal sphincter contracts, detrusor relaxes).
Hypogastric plexuses and nerves
Pain (superior portion, above pelvic pain line) afferents are visceral following the course of the sympathetic fibers to the upper lumbar and lower thoracic spinal ganglia.
Parasympathetic innervation of the bladder.
With low bladder volumes, the parasympathetic system is inhibited.
When the bladder is full and micturition is desired, the inhibitory signals from the brain are replaced by impulses that stimulate the parasympathetic system (and result in detrusor contraction) and that inhibit the sympathetic system (cause internal sphincter relaxation).
Pelvic splanchnics and inferior hypogastric plexus
Pain (inferior portion) afferents are visceral following the course of the parasympathetic fibers.
Innervates all the pelvic floor muscles.
pudendal nerve S2-S4
Muscles of the UG triangle.
ischiocavernosus, bulbospongiosus, deep transverse perineus, superficial transverse perineus
pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus, coccygeus
___________ and ___________ ligaments are the landmarks for finding the innervation to the perineal region.
Sacrospinous (seen anteriorly); sacrotuberous (seen posteriorly)
Form the sacral plexus.
The pudendal artery is a branch of?
internal iliac artery
Around the _____ week the sexual differentiation occurs.
This gene encodes for a testes determining factor (TDF), which determines the path of formation of gonads.
Development of the male external genitalia is dependent upon _____________.
Area of the brain for sexual behavior.
What is the significance of the sexually dimorphic nucleus?
very little or not present in females, in males it used to "plan" sexual behavior
Female counterpart to the sexually dimorphic nucleus?
The urogenital folds in the male fuse together on the ventral side of the developing penis, enclosing what will form the ______ ______.
The urogenital folds in the female are developing into the ______ ______
Root of the penis consists of the bulb attached to _____________ and _______________.