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Flashcards in The Visual System Deck (55)
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1

Neural component of the eye.

- designed to transduce a photon of light into something the nervous system will recognize (action potential)
- transduced through chemical reactions into action potentials

2

Primary (only) purpose of non-neural eye components.

refract (bending) photons of light

3

Non-neural components of the eye.

cornea, aqueous chamber, lens, vitreous chamber/fluid, neural retina, fovea/macular region, ciliary muscle and lens, iris

4

How does the cornea receive nutrients?

tears (avascular - CN VII damage can cause cornea to dry out)

5

Attach lens to ciliary muscles.

zonular ligaments

6

This helps maintain the shape of the eye.

vitreous chamber

7

Fovea Centralis

where all photons of light are refracted to, greatest acuity

8

Macula Lutea

surrounds fovea centralis, yellowish in color b/c of protein lutein (filters out ultraviolet light and helps to protect the eye)

9

Retina is an extension of the ___________.

diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, etc.)

10

What occurs when the ciliary muscle fibers are relaxed?

suspensory ligament/zonular ligament are taught, pulling on lens to elongate lens for focusing on distance vision

11

What occurs when the ciliary muscle fibers are contracted?

narrows aperture, allowing suspensory ligaments to be relaxed, thickening/rounding the lens for focusing on near vision

12

Iris (two series of muscles)

circular: sphincter pupilli (parasympathetic)
radially orientation: dilation of iris (sympathetic)

13

Visible light

between 400-700 nm in wavelength

14

Round muscle around the border of the iris.

ciliary muscle (CN III)

15

Connect the photoreceptor cells to the retinal ganglion cells (output cells).

bipolar cells

16

Photoreceptor cells

Rods (1) and Cones (3: red, blue, green)

17

These cells spread info laterally rather than vertically.

Horizontal Cells and Amacrine Cells

18

Superficial: optic fiber layer

axons of retinal ganglion cells

19

Ganglion cell layer

cell body of retinal ganglion cells

20

Inner plexiform layer

synapses are occurring between amacrine and bipolar cells with ganglion cells

21

Inner nuclear layer

cell heavy with cell bodies of bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells

22

Outer plexiform layer

cell free layer! synapses for horizontal, bipolar cells, and photoreceptor cells

23

Outer nuclear layer

contains cell bodies of rods and cones

24

Inner segments and Outer segments

contains photoreceptors

25

Series of blood vessels that feed the deeper structures of the eye.

choroid plexus

26

Retinal Layers

optic fiber layer-->ganglion cell layer-->inner plexiform layer-->inner nuclear layer-->outer plexiform layer-->outer nuclear layer-->inner segments and out segments-->pigment epithelium-->choroid

27

Foveal pit

- marks the center of the fovea, in the center of the macula lutea
- greatest concentration of photoreceptors, bipolar, to ganglion cells (1:1:1 relationship)
- creates your greatest visual acuity
- prone to degenerative diseases

28

Right visual world

Left Temporal Retina
Right Nasal Retina

29

Left visual world

Right Temporal Retina
Left Nasal Retina

30

The greatest acuity is in which field?

macular field