Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (68)
When does the face develop?
during the 4th-5th week of development, neural crest and ectoderm cells form the branchial arches = pharyngeal arches
What two prominences form the 1st branchial arch?
maxillary and mandibular
These separate the branchial arches.
pharyngeal cleft (groove) externally and pharyngeal pouch internally
The branchial apparatus consists of:
branchial arches (mesoderm), branchial grooves or clefts (ectoderm), pharyngeal pouches (endoderm), branchial membranes (ectoderm and endoderm)
1st Branchial Arch
CN V, muscles of mastication
2nd Branchial Arch
CN VII, muscles of facial expression
3rd Branchial Arch
CN IX, stylopharyngeus (swallowing)
4th and 6th Branchial Arches
CN X, superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves and XI, all infrahyoid muscles except stylopharyngeus
5th Branchial Arch
rudimentary, nothing develops from this
Direction of facial development.
rostral to caudal
Develops from frontonasal prominence.
V1 - opthalmic division of trigeminal, forehead and dorsum apex of nose
Develops from lateral nasal prominences.
sides (alae) of the nose
Develops from medial nasal prominences.
Develops from the maxillary prominences.
V2 - maxillary division of trigeminal, upper cheek region and most of the upper lip, nasal placodes and lateral aspects of face
Develops from the mandibular prominences.
V3 - mandibular division of trigeminal, chin, lower lip, and lower cheek regions, innervates mylohyoid, masseter, temporalis
Develops from the mesenchyme in the facial prominences.
fleshy derivatives and various bones
What develops from the ectodermal stomodeum (ventral)?
The pinna of the ear arises from:
What failure results in cleft palate?
philtrum (medial nasal prominences) to fuse with mandibular prominences, medial palatine processes fail to fuse with another, not all will have cleft lip
deformation of the ear, accompanied by deafness
What results in cleft lip?
maxillary process fails to fuse with medial nasal process
What is more common: cleft lip or cleft palate?
cleft lip (1:1000) vs. cleft palate (1:2500); also cleft lip is much more common in men
Coronal section of the head will reveal these layers of the SCALP.
skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis and muscle, loose connective tissue, periosteum
Branches of CN VII Facial.
posterior auricular, temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical
Branches of V1 of the trigeminal nerve.
supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, external nasal, lacrimal
Branches of V2 of trigeminal nerve.
infraorbital, zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal
Branches of V3 of trigeminal nerve.
buccal, mental, auriculotemporal
Nerve to lateral and medial pterygoid is a branch of what nerve?
V3 - mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Branchial disorders associated with malformation from 1st and 2nd arches.
cleft lip and palate, craniofacial microsomia (CFM), Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS), micrognathia, otomandibular dysostosis, micrognathia, microtia