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When does the face develop?

during the 4th-5th week of development, neural crest and ectoderm cells form the branchial arches = pharyngeal arches

1

What two prominences form the 1st branchial arch?

maxillary and mandibular

2

These separate the branchial arches.

pharyngeal cleft (groove) externally and pharyngeal pouch internally

3

The branchial apparatus consists of:

branchial arches (mesoderm), branchial grooves or clefts (ectoderm), pharyngeal pouches (endoderm), branchial membranes (ectoderm and endoderm)

4

1st Branchial Arch

CN V, muscles of mastication

5

2nd Branchial Arch

CN VII, muscles of facial expression

6

3rd Branchial Arch

CN IX, stylopharyngeus (swallowing)

7

4th and 6th Branchial Arches

CN X, superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves and XI, all infrahyoid muscles except stylopharyngeus

8

5th Branchial Arch

rudimentary, nothing develops from this

9

Direction of facial development.

rostral to caudal

10

Develops from frontonasal prominence.

V1 - opthalmic division of trigeminal, forehead and dorsum apex of nose

11

Develops from lateral nasal prominences.

sides (alae) of the nose

12

Develops from medial nasal prominences.

nasal septum

13

Develops from the maxillary prominences.

V2 - maxillary division of trigeminal, upper cheek region and most of the upper lip, nasal placodes and lateral aspects of face

14

Develops from the mandibular prominences.

V3 - mandibular division of trigeminal, chin, lower lip, and lower cheek regions, innervates mylohyoid, masseter, temporalis

15

Develops from the mesenchyme in the facial prominences.

fleshy derivatives and various bones

16

What develops from the ectodermal stomodeum (ventral)?

mouth

17

The pinna of the ear arises from:

otic placode

18

What failure results in cleft palate?

philtrum (medial nasal prominences) to fuse with mandibular prominences, medial palatine processes fail to fuse with another, not all will have cleft lip

19

Microtia

deformation of the ear, accompanied by deafness

20

What results in cleft lip?

maxillary process fails to fuse with medial nasal process

21

What is more common: cleft lip or cleft palate?

cleft lip (1:1000) vs. cleft palate (1:2500); also cleft lip is much more common in men

22

Coronal section of the head will reveal these layers of the SCALP.

skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis and muscle, loose connective tissue, periosteum

23

Branches of CN VII Facial.

posterior auricular, temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical

24

Branches of V1 of the trigeminal nerve.

supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, external nasal, lacrimal

25

Branches of V2 of trigeminal nerve.

infraorbital, zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal

26

Branches of V3 of trigeminal nerve.

buccal, mental, auriculotemporal

27

Nerve to lateral and medial pterygoid is a branch of what nerve?

V3 - mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve

28

Branchial disorders associated with malformation from 1st and 2nd arches.

cleft lip and palate, craniofacial microsomia (CFM), Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS), micrognathia, otomandibular dysostosis, micrognathia, microtia

29

What branches of CN VII are associated with Bell's palsy?

cervical, mandibular, buccal, zygomatic, temporal