Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (68):
When does the face develop?
during the 4th-5th week of development, neural crest and ectoderm cells form the branchial arches = pharyngeal arches
What two prominences form the 1st branchial arch?
maxillary and mandibular
These separate the branchial arches.
pharyngeal cleft (groove) externally and pharyngeal pouch internally
The branchial apparatus consists of:
branchial arches (mesoderm), branchial grooves or clefts (ectoderm), pharyngeal pouches (endoderm), branchial membranes (ectoderm and endoderm)
1st Branchial Arch
CN V, muscles of mastication
2nd Branchial Arch
CN VII, muscles of facial expression
3rd Branchial Arch
CN IX, stylopharyngeus (swallowing)
4th and 6th Branchial Arches
CN X, superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves and XI, all infrahyoid muscles except stylopharyngeus
5th Branchial Arch
rudimentary, nothing develops from this
Direction of facial development.
rostral to caudal
Develops from frontonasal prominence.
V1 - opthalmic division of trigeminal, forehead and dorsum apex of nose
Develops from lateral nasal prominences.
sides (alae) of the nose
Develops from medial nasal prominences.
Develops from the maxillary prominences.
V2 - maxillary division of trigeminal, upper cheek region and most of the upper lip, nasal placodes and lateral aspects of face
Develops from the mandibular prominences.
V3 - mandibular division of trigeminal, chin, lower lip, and lower cheek regions, innervates mylohyoid, masseter, temporalis
Develops from the mesenchyme in the facial prominences.
fleshy derivatives and various bones
What develops from the ectodermal stomodeum (ventral)?
The pinna of the ear arises from:
What failure results in cleft palate?
philtrum (medial nasal prominences) to fuse with mandibular prominences, medial palatine processes fail to fuse with another, not all will have cleft lip
deformation of the ear, accompanied by deafness
What results in cleft lip?
maxillary process fails to fuse with medial nasal process
What is more common: cleft lip or cleft palate?
cleft lip (1:1000) vs. cleft palate (1:2500); also cleft lip is much more common in men
Coronal section of the head will reveal these layers of the SCALP.
skin, connective tissue, aponeurosis and muscle, loose connective tissue, periosteum
Branches of CN VII Facial.
posterior auricular, temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical
Branches of V1 of the trigeminal nerve.
supraorbital, supratrochlear, infratrochlear, external nasal, lacrimal
Branches of V2 of trigeminal nerve.
infraorbital, zygomaticofacial, zygomaticotemporal
Branches of V3 of trigeminal nerve.
buccal, mental, auriculotemporal
Nerve to lateral and medial pterygoid is a branch of what nerve?
V3 - mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
Branchial disorders associated with malformation from 1st and 2nd arches.
cleft lip and palate, craniofacial microsomia (CFM), Treacher-Collins syndrome (TCS), micrognathia, otomandibular dysostosis, micrognathia, microtia
What branches of CN VII are associated with Bell's palsy?
cervical, mandibular, buccal, zygomatic, temporal
What is associated with Bell's palsy?
damage to the facial nerve terminal branches, depending on location of the lesion may see symptoms such as loss of motor, taste, and autonomic function (lacrimal secretions if damaged near pontine origin or geniculate ganglion), paralyzed platysma, orbicularis oris, buccinator, orbicularis oculi
Which arteries arise from the external carotid artery to irrigate the face?
facial (inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, angular), transverse facial, infraorbital, mental
Which arteries arise from the internal carotid artery to irrigate the face?
Which two arteries primarily irrigate the face?
arteries arising from the external and internal carotid arteries
Most of the lymphatics of the face drain into which vein?
Parotid region contents.
parotid gland and duct, CN IX, auriculotemporal nerve, external carotid plexus, branches of the greater auricular nerve, facial branches forming the parotid plexus, external carotid artery, external jugular vein, retromandibular vein, masseter, lymph nodes
sensory and GVE to parotid gland to increase salivation, branch of V3 of trigeminal nerve
Which cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
III, IV, V1 of trigeminal, VI
What artery passes through the optic canal in addition to CN II?
Ganglia involved in the autonomic innervation of the lacrimal gland.
pterygopalatine ganglion (CN VII to greater petrosal nerve), superior cervical sympathetic ganglion (T1 & T2 spinal cord segments)
Flow of tears:
lacrimal gland-->excretory lacrimal ducts-->superior or inferior lacrimal canal-->lacrimal sac-->nasolacrimal duct-->nasal cavity
Lacrimal apparatus autonomics:
superior salivatory gland-->CN VII-->greater petrosal nerve-->pterygoid canal nerve-->pterygopalatine ganglion-->to lacrimal gland via zygomatic and lacrimal nerves
Muscles associated with the infratemporal fossa:
primary - lateral and medial pterygoids; secondary - temporalis, masseter, buccinator
Which nerve innervates ALL of the muscles of mastication?
V3 of trigeminal (from 1st branchial arch don't forget)
Chorda tympani is a branch of the facial nerve but it also is associated with which other nerve?
Which artery supplies the infratemporal fossa?
maxillary artery (branch of external carotid), 3 parts
The 2nd part of the maxillary artery is sandwiched between which muscles?
medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
Arteries of the 1st part of the maxillary artery.
deep auricular, anterior tympanic, accessory meningeal, middle meningeal, inferior alveolar
Arteries of the 2nd part of the maxillary artery.
deep temporal, buccal, branches to masseterics and pterygoids
Arteries of the 3rd part of the maxillary artery.
sphenopalatine, infraorbital, posterior superior alveolar, pharyngeal, descending palatine
The __________ prominence contributes most of the otic placode.
With Bell's palsy, what will determine whether or not the patient has lacrimal secretion function intact?
Damage to the nerve close to its pontine origin or nearby the geniculate ganglion (loss of motor, taste and autonomic functions - lacrimal secretions); Damage to the nerve distal the geniculate ganglion, proximal to the chorda tympani, lacrimation is preserved
Most of the veins of the face drain into which vein?
What serves the function of lymph nodes intracranially?
Sensory information of parotid gland is contained in this nerve.
auriculotemporal (CN V3)
What passes through the superior orbital fissure?
CN III, IV, V1, VI
Opthalmic division of the Trigeminal nerve includes:
lacrimal, frontal, nasociliary
frontal view of head for fractures or sinusitis
chin on table, used for fractures of facial bones/nerves, used for maxillary sinuses, x-ray runs superior to inferior
tangential view, used to see if the pt. has corrected alveolar plates (cleft palate surgery), used to diagnosis deviated septum/supported by CT of skull
Lateral view (of skull)
fractures for zygomatic bones, frontal bones; used to look for sphenoid sinusitis
The superior sagittal sinus lies between what two layers?
dura and arachnoid
What is found between the arachnoid and pia?
Although most of the face blood flows into the internal jugular veins, there is some drainage into the ________ _____ and ________ ______ plexuses deep to the petrous ridges of the temporal bones.
cavernous sinus; pterygoid venous
Retromandibular, facial veins are directly associated with superficial temporal vein; and they all drain into?
external jugular vein
GVE and GVA for the parotid gland?
auriculotemporal branch of CN V3
The _________ nerve, branch of (CN IX), carries the presynaptic nerve for the parotid gland.