Flashcards in Oral Cavity Deck (40):
Describe the differences in keratinization of the tissues in the mouth.
lips-transition zone - keratinized; hard palate - parakeratinized; soft palate, floor of the mouth, lips, cheeks - nonkeratinized; transition from lips to oral cavity is called vermillion a region where you see a transition from stratified squamous keratinized to non keratinized
What is keratinization?
Keratin is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin. If skin is exposed to environment, the developmental processes will force the skin to become keratinized. (Fun fact: Some infectious fungi, such as those that cause athlete's foot and ringworm, feed on keratin.)
What factors affect teeth development?
hormonal imbalance, force influence from diet (deciduous baby teeth are lost when your diet changes)
How many teeth in children vs. adults?
children - 20 deciduous (8 incisors, 4 canine, 8 molars); adults - 32 permanent (8 incisors, 4 canines, 8 premolars, 12 molars)
When do the medial incisors erupt in children?
typically 6-8 months but may not be until 12-13 months
Explain the innervation of the teeth.
Associated with branches of the trigeminal nerve (V2 & V3); Maxillary Branch (upper jaw) is most important - (posterior, middle, anterior) superior alveolar branch of V2; Mandibular Branch (lower jaw) (dental, mental, incisive) inferior alveolar branch of V3 (also some from buccal branch of V3)
Differences between the hard and soft palate.
Soft and hard palate come from the frontonasal prominence in embryo; Hard palate - from palatine bone coming from the maxillary prominences; Soft palate - soft tissue attached to the bone (attached to inferior and lateral maxillary processes)
Two nerves that innervate soft palate musculature?
CN X and CN V
Tensor Veli Palatini
tenses the wing of the soft palate; support swallowing and talking (only one innervated by CN V3)
Levator Veli Palatini
elevates soft palate for swallowing, pharyngeal branch of CN X
connection between tongue and soft palate, pharyngeal branch of CN X
tenses soft palate and pulls walls of pharynx superiorly, anteriorly, and medially during swallowing, pharyngeal branch of CN X
elevates the uvulae, pharyngeal branch of CN X
forms the salpingopharnygeal fold, arises from the superior border of the medial cartilage of the pharyngotympanic tube (Eustachian tube), in the nasal cavity, making the posterior welt of the torus tubarius; it passes downward and blends with the posterior fasciculus of the palatopharyngeus muscle (raises the larynx and pharynx), pharyngeal branch of CN X
Pterygopalatine Ganglion general characteristics.
suspended from V2, parasympathetic preganglionic neurons feeding from the facial nerve (greater petrosal branch) synapse out as postganglionic neurons to lacrimal nerve, parasympathetic system innervation to Lacrimal glands, nasal septum mucosa, other glands; vasomotor activity of the glands is from parasympathetic and sympathetic
Pterygopalatine Ganglion postsynaptic nerves.
Nasopalatine nerve - nasal mucosa and anterior hard palate; Greater Petrosal nerve - gingivae mucosa and glands of hard palate; Lesser petrosal nerve - soft palate; Nasal Cavity is asymmetrical - one side has the nasal septum usually, other side has the conchae; Turbinate area - connects turbinate to conchae (ear with nasolacrimal duct)
Presynaptic fibers of the pterygopalatine ganglion come from ________ _______ ______, travel through either the facial nerve and/or the trigeminal nerve.
superior salivatory ganglion, If they go through facial they go through the geniculate ganglion but don’t synapse. Then course through the greater petrosal nerve and then reach the pterygopalatine ganglion through the vindian nerve and synapse.
Maxillary Anesthesia - Common Nerve Block Techniques:
Posterior superior alveolar - Infraorbital (one of the locations dentists search for to anesthetize dental patients); Middle superior alveolar - Greater palatine; Anterior superior alveolar - Neopalatine; Used to anesthetize the pulpal tissue, corresponding alveolar bone, and gingival tissue to the maxillary 1st, 2nd, and 3rd molars. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd canine and incisors
Three salivary glands.
Parotid - Largest; Submandibular - 2nd Largest; Sublingual - smallest due to restricted space to grow
water, glycoproteins (lysozyme, amylase), electrolytes, minerals, bicarbonates
moistening, dissolving, bufferings, digeting, antibacterial, immunologic
Two kinds of salivary gland composition tissues.
serous - contains more protein based product; mucous - used for parts that need lubrication
Histology of parotid gland.
totally serous, high amylase secretion, IgA; branched acinar
Histology of submandibular gland.
mostly serous, partially mucous; serous demilumes with lysozyme (antibacterial action); branched tubuloacinar
Histology of sublingual gland.
almost completely mucous, cells forming serous demilumes secrete lysozyme; branched tubuloacinar
The innervation of the tongue has all the pharyngeal branches represented. Name the nerves (branches).
innervated by lingual nerve (CN V3 - general sensory), chorda tympani (CN VII - special sensory), glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX - general and special sense), palatoglossus and internal laryngeal nerve (CN X) and hypoglossal (CN XII - general motor) nerve
_______ _______ innervated by facial nerve (SVE) for taste.
__________ are usually kept the most intact in response to foods/smoking.
Four types of lingual papillae.
filiform, foliate, fungiform, circumvallate
Which type of lingual papillae is not as sensitive to taste?
Which type of lingual papillae is most numerous at apex and margins of tongue?
Geographic Tongue (Benign migratory glossitis)
Different textures on the tongue - surface anatomy changes as per what is eaten; Pattern forms based on what you eat or when stressed/relaxed
Is the ability to taste affected by geographic tongue?
Hairy Tongue (Lingua villosa nigra)
Fungi and bacteria can colonize on the filiform
is an acquired condition - common in adolescents; comes from not cleaning enough/properly; Color can change based on bacteria; Antibiotics and Antifungals are given; Is acquired and associated with poor hygiene
Extrinsic muscles of the tongue.
genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus, palatoglossus (associated with external aspect of the tongue to move it peripherally)
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue.
change the surface anatomy or mucosa or papillae to amplify exposure to a particular taste (superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal, transverse, vertical - continuous with genioglossus); where the genioglossus ends the intrinsics start
constitutes bulk of tongue, mandible to tongue; depresses, protrusion, retracts, "wags," basically it does everything :p
thin muscle, hyoid bone to tongue, depresses tongue
small muscle, styloid to tongue, retrudes and curls tongue