Hypothalamus, Thalamus, RAS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hypothalamus, Thalamus, RAS Deck (48)
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1

Explain the boundaries of the hypothalamus.

Dorsal - sulcus limitans
Medial - third ventricle
Rostral - lamina terminalis
Ventral - infundibulum
Caudal - posterior mammillary bodies
Lateral - no precise lateral border

2

Half way between the optic chiasm and mamillary bodies and represents the median eminence.

infundibulum

3

Functions of the hypothalamus.

blood osmolality (chemoreceptors), blood pressure control (carotid sinus), childbirth and lactation (oxytocin and prolactin), thermoregulation, food/fluid intake and output control, emotional control (motor aspects), sex drive (sexual orientation/behaviors)

4

Dysfunction in hypothalamus causing uncontrollable eating.

Prader Willi syndrome

5

Two pathways of the infundibulum to the pituitary.

Posterior: neural - contains axons that communicate with posterior portion of pituitary gland
Anterior: vascular - “hypothalamic portal system” and carries hormones through vasculature to anterior portion pituitary

6

Hypothalamic nuclei in the pre-optic and supraoptic tier.

suprachiasmatic nuclei, preoptic nuclei, anterior nuclei, paraventricular nuclei

7

Hypothalamic nuclei in the tuberal tier.

ventral nuclei, lateral nuclei, dorsal nuclei

8

Hypothalamic nuclei in the mamillary tier.

posterior nuclei and mamillary bodies

9

What is medial to the pairs of nuclei in the hypothalamus?

third ventricle

10

Functions of Pre-Optic Tier/Nuclei.

bladder control, heart rate, temperature

11

Functions of Supraoptic Tier/Nuclei.

water conservation, oxytocin release

12

Functions of Tuberal Tier/Nuclei.

thirst/hunger, emotions/rage

13

Functions of Mamillary Tier/Nuclei.

blood pressure, feeding reflexes, shivering/sweating

14

Connections of hippocampus.

connected via fornix to septal nuclei (ant. commissural fornix) and to mammillary nuclei (postcommissural fornix); connected via nuclei to anterior nucleus of the thalamus and via that to cingulate gyrus (limbic system)

15

Anterior Lobe: Adenohypophysis (Pituitary)

Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Portal System: made of intricate channels (venous) of released hormones from various nuclei of hypothalamus trophic hormones are released from pituitary into the body for physiological responses

16

Which tiers are primarily connected to the anterior pituitary?

pre-optic and tuberal tier

17

Posterior Lobe: Neurohypophysis (Pituitary)

Hypothalamo-hypophyseal Tract: from paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus to posterior pituitary; direct neuronal synapses in posterior pituitary

18

Hypothalamus is major controller of our _________ system.

endocrine (homeostatic mechanisms)

19

Neurotransmitters released from posterior pituitary?

ADH and oxytocin

20

The release of trophic hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary is considered a fast/slow response.

slow

21

The release of ADH from the posterior lobe of the pituitary is considered a fast/slow response.

fast

22

Explain the feedback loops to the hypothalamus for endocrine function.

short feedback loops: pituitary to hypothalamus
long feedback loops: endocrine organs/visceral organs to hypothalamus (neural - visceral organs to the brain and then to hypothalamus; metabolic - electrolytes, pH, CO2 receptors then to hypothalamus

23

Composes the diencephalon.

hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus (optic nerves and tract are an extension of the diencephalon)

24

Epithalamus

posteriorly above the thalamus and interconnected to the hypothalamus & septum basal forebrain (stria terminalis pathway)

25

Boundaries of the thalamus.

medial boundary: third ventricle
dorsal boundary: epithalamus
lateral boundary: internal capsule (posterior limb)
inferior boundary: hypothalamus

26

True/false: All sensory systems go through the thalamus.

false - all except smell

27

General physiological features of the thalamus.

chief sensory and motor relay station, multimodal integration, input/output modulation, alertness

28

Separates the anatomical divisions of the thalamus.

Y shaped white matter band called intramedullary lamina

29

What is the largest division of the thalamus?

lateral (closest to posterior limb of internal capsule)

30

Interthalamic nuclei - (subdivisions of the lateral division of the thalamus)

1: nonspecific nuclei (archithalamus) - not associated with specific motor/sensory input, oldest portion of the thalamus
2: specific nuclei (paleothalamus) - associated with specific motor/sensory functions
3: association nuclei (neothalamus) - integration