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Flashcards in GI Deck (38)
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1
Q

What are the 4 digestive organs in the GI system and what are the 2 accessory organs?

A
Digestive = oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Accessory = pancreas and liver
2
Q

What are the three stages of mechanical breakdown?

A

Prehension
Mastication
Motility (movement of the gut

3
Q

Which enzyme is found in saliva and what does it breakdown?

A

Amylase that breaks down carbohydrates

4
Q

What type of saliva is produced in ruminants, what is the pH alkaline?

A

Mainly serous saliva

pH is alkaline to buffer the forestomach for fermentation

5
Q

What happens to HCO3 and PO4 secretion during eating and ruminating?

A

HCO3 secretion increases and PO4 secretion decreases, this is because there is a higher flow rate

6
Q

Regulation of saliva is under neural control, how would the sympathetic nervous system influence saliva?

A

It would reduce production in the fight or flight response

7
Q

Compare the pH in the stomach compared to the small intestine

A

Stomach = pH 2

Small intestine = pH 6/7

8
Q

What provides insulation in pigs despite their lack of hair?

A

Subcutaneous fat - adipose in the superficial fascia

9
Q

What is the role of the cutaneous trunci muscle?

A

It is a skin twitch e.g. horses

10
Q

What are the 4 muscles that comprise the abdominal wall?

A

External abdominal oblique
Internal abdominal oblique
Transverse abdominal
Rectus abdominis

11
Q

What separates the left and right sides of the Rectus abdominis muscle?

A

Linea alba

12
Q

How does the arrangement of the tendons passing by the rectus abdominis affect the strength and flexibility of the abdomen?

A

Cranial - split evenly above and below providing high strength but low flexibility
Mid - more flexible decreased strength
Caudal - all below, weakest arrangement but highest flexibility

13
Q

As an embryo, part of the yolk sac is taken into the body, what does this go on to form?

A

The gut

14
Q

What do the foregut, midgut and hindgut differentiate into?

A

Foregut differentiates into pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and initial duodenum
Midgut differentiates into rest of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum, ascending / transverse colon
Hindgut differentiates into descending colon and rectum

15
Q

What do the liver and pancreas arise from?

A

Endodermal diverticulum

16
Q

What are the 3 arteries supplying the abdomen?

A

Celiac artery
Cranial mesenteric artery
Caudal mesenteric artery

17
Q

What is the type of peritoneum that dictates where an organ stays within the abdominal cavity?

A

Connecting peritoneum

18
Q

What do the mesentery, omentum, fold and ligament peritoneum connect?

A
mesentery = bowel to body wall
omentum = stomach to something
fold = connects bowel organs
ligament = non GI organs to body wall
19
Q

What is the peritoneal cavity?

A

The potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum

20
Q

What are the names of the 4 lobes of the liver?

A

Left, right, caudate and quadrate

21
Q

What are the attachments of the peritoneal?

A

coronary ligament, triangular ligaments, and round/falciform ligament

22
Q

What are the 3 areas of the stomach?

A

Fundus, corpus, pylorus

23
Q

What are 2 roles of the greater omentum?

A

Attaches stomach to spleen

Provides a surface area for white blood cells to quickly get to areas in the abdomen

24
Q

Where would you find the spleen and what is it’s main role?

A

Left side of the abdomen

Blood reservoir

25
Q

What is the duodenum? Which 2 ducts empty into it?

A

The first part of the small intestine

Exit of bile duct and accessory duct

26
Q

What are the 3 peritoneal attachments of the duodenum?

A

Mesoduodenum
Duodeno-colic fold
Hepato-duodenal ligament

27
Q

How many lobes are there in the pancreas, in which direction do these lobes run?

A
  • Right lobe running in the cranio-caudal direction

- Left lobe running medio-laterally

28
Q

Which part of the small intestine has the greatest proportion?

A

Jejunum

29
Q

What are the 3 parts of the colon?

A

Ascending, transverse and descending

30
Q

What do the sensory cells in the GI tract detect?

A

Wall stretch, nutrient conc, metabolite conc, osmolarity, pH, irritation

31
Q

What are digestive processes coordinated by?

A

Neural regulation and hormonal regulation

32
Q

Which nervous systems produce 1) short and 2) long reflex arcs?

A

1) enteric NS

2) autonomic NS

33
Q

What do short reflex arcs enable?

A

The GI tract to have extensive control of its activities that can act independently to the rest of the body

34
Q

Which relfexes co-ordinate activity between different parts of GI tract?
Give an example

A

Entero-enteric reflexes

Mastication stimulates release of saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice and bile

35
Q

Describe the 3 phases of regulation

A

1) Cephalic phase - pertains the head, e.g. anticipation of food
2) Gastric phase - pertains the head
3) Intestinal phase

36
Q

What are the 3 theories of the regulation of appetite

A

Glucostat - levels of glucose
CCK theory - level of CCK
Lipostat theory - level of fat

37
Q

What are the 4 types of contraction that allow food to move through the GI system?

A

1) Segmental - mixes lumen contents
2) Peristalsis
3) Anti-peristalsis
4) Mass movement - empties entire sections of the GI tract

38
Q

Where are pacemaker cells in the GI system located?

A

between circular and longitudinal smooth muscle