Flashcards in Greece Deck (58):
Effect of Greece's geography
Mountains = separate city states
Rivers = large navy, food from water
Not fertile soil= Small population
Gods & goddesses
Main ones: Zeus(god of sky) Athena(wisdom) Poseidon(water)
Lived in Greece, specifically CRETE at very beginning
City of Mycenaeans, that migrated as indo-European travelers into Greece and fought a war against Troy
Large island on the edge of the Aegean Sea (under Greece) occupied by Minoans for a while
Came into Greece after Mycenaean civilization ended, lacked language and art, but included Homer (famous poem storyteller)
Lived during the Dorian conquest, greatest storyteller, told epics
Long narrative poems including heroic deeds
Mycenaeans (Greek) vs. Trojans
According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king.
Greek give Trojans- Trojan horse
Marketplace on a hill Greeks would hang out and talk politics
Why have acropolis ? Because geography- mountainous
During Dorian rule, and Persian wars, Foot soldiers that were in a phalanx (16x16 Greek formation)
During unites Greeks, during the Persian war , the army had a deadly powerful fighting force that included 16x16 hoplites with spears
Powerful noble or wealthy citizens, that appeal to the common people for support and seize control of the land
A government ruled by a few powerful people
DO NOT HAVE TO BE RICH OR NOBLES, CAN BE TRADERS
Oracle of Delphi
Was a girl that was said to predict the future from the god Apollo (god of music, and prophecy)
Located in Peloponnesus (southern part), military based
Gov: council of elders: proposed laws
Assembly: voted on issues
Five elected officials: carried out laws
Northern city of Greece that valued art and physical appearance
Gov: direct democracy
Greece vs Persia: some athenians settled in northern Greece, the Persians came and took over, so the Athenians sent aid, they had a battle, the Athenians won, they sent back Pheidippides (first marathon) to tell there city to flee because it was defenseless, the Athenians came back and blocked the Persians, Xerxes fought 300 Spartans in mt pass, Athenians and Persians fought on water, alliance- Delian league, after a while they drove Persians back & ended all threats of future attacks
First Persian leader during Persian war
Second King of Persia during Persian wars, Darius's son
After first Persian vs Greek battle, the city was defenseless because all the men were fighting so they send Pheidippides back 26.2 miles and said "Rejoice, we conquer" and then died.
HE SAID WE NEED TO KNOW
First Persian war battle was at marathon(northern plain) so when Pheidippides ran 26 miles they call it a marathon now
PERSIAN VS GREEKS
Story of Thermopylae and the 300 Spartans
Xerxes gathered a huge army to pummel the Greeks. 7000 Athenians & 300 Spartans held them at a pass in Thermopylae. They held off for 3 days. But a traitor told them a secret tunnel through the mountains, so the Athenians got scared and ran off. But the Spartans stayed and fought and all 300 died.
After the Persian war, Greek unites and is called the Delian league. The capital is Athens, and lead by Pericles.
Leader of the Delian league & the golden age of Athens.
Pericles 3 goals
strengthen Athenian democracy, hold and strengthen empire, glorify Athens
(Athens vs Sparta) Athens got all the taxes and Sparta got jealous and went to war. Athens was stronger by navy & Sparta by army, so Athens created a wall around their city & waited to attack them with navy. Athens had plague and a truce was signed. But Athens sent a huge fleet to nock out Syracuse but they lost terribly. Athens was able to hold off Sparta for nine more years but then surrendered.
Temple of worship made under Pericles, made by Phidias & has a statue of Athena in it, aimed to be classical art (harmony, balance, order & proportion)
Lover of wisdom
Believed in absolute standards for truth & justice. He was a "gadfly" to the government. He got tried when he was 70 for corrupting the cities youth & neglecting the gods. He was put to death by hemlock.
Taught by Socrates, wrote the Republic
Book written by Plato, said to be about Socrates
Allegory of the cave:
Story In the republic that is a metaphor for people and there lack of knowledge. Along with Socrates trying to guide them to the light (knowledge) and being killed.
Plato's pupil, created scientific method and tutors Alexander the Great
Mountain in north Greek, where the Greek gods are supposed to live
Greek King god, god of the sky
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia, son of Phillip the second, took over Persia, kept going and married a Persian. Legacy: Hellenistic culture (blend of Egyptian, Persian and Greek culture)
Philip the second
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander, Took over Greece and was the first person to use phalanx.
Blend of Persian, Egyptian and Greek cultures.
Egyptian city on the western part of the Nile delta. Was a center of commerce & trade for the Hellenistic culture. It had an incredible museum & library.
Epicureanism vs. stoicism
Epicureanism- made by Epicurus: based upon 5 senses, live for the now, achieve harmony of body and mind. DID NOT INVOLVE IN POLITICS
Stoicism- made by Zeno: live harmoniously with the will of god or the natural laws.
Persian war was between
United Greek vs Persia
Trojan war was between
Early Greeks (specifically Mycenaeans) vs Trojans
Peloponnesian war was between
Sparta vs Athens
"Excellence" Greeks strived for
Sparta vs Athens
Sparta vs Athens
same: both strived for excellence, lived on not fertile soil, depended upon water
Sparta- military based, no Olympics, strong army, led by elders, elected officials, military kings and an assembly, loud strong woman who could go into the military
Athens- architecture, art and Olympic Games based, strong navy, led by a direct democracy, quiet woman who raised children
Allegory of the cave brake down
Who wrote? Plato
Symbolism? The light: knowledge, darkness: ignorance, the man who try's to help them out: Socrates
What is an allegory? A story with grater symbolism
What book is it from? The Republic
Goddess of wisdom
Type of government led by a king
Form of government which is led by nobles or aristocrats
Indirect- people vote for representative - representative makes decisions (republic)
Direct- people vote on every specific issue
In Sparta, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked on (slaves)
Hellenistic (Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture) scientist, studied at Alexandria, invented screw, pi and buoyancy (what makes the boat float)
Fought in the Trojan war, famous poem written by Homer about his 10 year journey back from the Trojan war
Spreading of ideas/products from one culture to another
After Alexander's death, he took over Egypt, declared himself Pharaoh & established a dynasty