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Flashcards in Greece Deck (58):
0

Effect of Greece's geography

Mountains = separate city states
Rivers = large navy, food from water
Not fertile soil= Small population

1

Greek religions

Gods & goddesses
Main ones: Zeus(god of sky) Athena(wisdom) Poseidon(water)

2

Minoans

Lived in Greece, specifically CRETE at very beginning

3

Mycenae

City of Mycenaeans, that migrated as indo-European travelers into Greece and fought a war against Troy

4

Crete

Large island on the edge of the Aegean Sea (under Greece) occupied by Minoans for a while

5

Dorians

Came into Greece after Mycenaean civilization ended, lacked language and art, but included Homer (famous poem storyteller)

6

Homer

Lived during the Dorian conquest, greatest storyteller, told epics

7

Epics

Long narrative poems including heroic deeds

8

Trojan war

Mycenaeans (Greek) vs. Trojans
According to legend, a Greek army besieged and destroyed Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king.
Greek give Trojans- Trojan horse
Greeks win

9

Acropolis

Marketplace on a hill Greeks would hang out and talk politics
Why have acropolis ? Because geography- mountainous

10

Hoplites

During Dorian rule, and Persian wars, Foot soldiers that were in a phalanx (16x16 Greek formation)

11

Phlantax

During unites Greeks, during the Persian war , the army had a deadly powerful fighting force that included 16x16 hoplites with spears

12

Tyranny

Powerful noble or wealthy citizens, that appeal to the common people for support and seize control of the land

13

Oligarchy

A government ruled by a few powerful people
DO NOT HAVE TO BE RICH OR NOBLES, CAN BE TRADERS

14

Oracle of Delphi

Was a girl that was said to predict the future from the god Apollo (god of music, and prophecy)

15

Sparta

Located in Peloponnesus (southern part), military based
Gov: council of elders: proposed laws
Assembly: voted on issues
Five elected officials: carried out laws

16

Athens

Northern city of Greece that valued art and physical appearance
Gov: direct democracy

17

Persian war

Greece vs Persia: some athenians settled in northern Greece, the Persians came and took over, so the Athenians sent aid, they had a battle, the Athenians won, they sent back Pheidippides (first marathon) to tell there city to flee because it was defenseless, the Athenians came back and blocked the Persians, Xerxes fought 300 Spartans in mt pass, Athenians and Persians fought on water, alliance- Delian league, after a while they drove Persians back & ended all threats of future attacks

18

Darius

First Persian leader during Persian war

19

Xerxes

Second King of Persia during Persian wars, Darius's son

20

Pheidippides

After first Persian vs Greek battle, the city was defenseless because all the men were fighting so they send Pheidippides back 26.2 miles and said "Rejoice, we conquer" and then died.
HE SAID WE NEED TO KNOW

21

Marathon

First Persian war battle was at marathon(northern plain) so when Pheidippides ran 26 miles they call it a marathon now
PERSIAN VS GREEKS

22

Story of Thermopylae and the 300 Spartans

Xerxes gathered a huge army to pummel the Greeks. 7000 Athenians & 300 Spartans held them at a pass in Thermopylae. They held off for 3 days. But a traitor told them a secret tunnel through the mountains, so the Athenians got scared and ran off. But the Spartans stayed and fought and all 300 died.

23

Delian league

After the Persian war, Greek unites and is called the Delian league. The capital is Athens, and lead by Pericles.

24

Pericles

Leader of the Delian league & the golden age of Athens.

25

Pericles 3 goals

strengthen Athenian democracy, hold and strengthen empire, glorify Athens

26

Peloponnesian War

(Athens vs Sparta) Athens got all the taxes and Sparta got jealous and went to war. Athens was stronger by navy & Sparta by army, so Athens created a wall around their city & waited to attack them with navy. Athens had plague and a truce was signed. But Athens sent a huge fleet to nock out Syracuse but they lost terribly. Athens was able to hold off Sparta for nine more years but then surrendered.

27

Polis

City state

28

The Parthenon

Temple of worship made under Pericles, made by Phidias & has a statue of Athena in it, aimed to be classical art (harmony, balance, order & proportion)

29

Philosopher

Lover of wisdom

30

Socrates

Believed in absolute standards for truth & justice. He was a "gadfly" to the government. He got tried when he was 70 for corrupting the cities youth & neglecting the gods. He was put to death by hemlock.

31

Plato

Taught by Socrates, wrote the Republic

32

The republic

Book written by Plato, said to be about Socrates

33

Allegory of the cave:

Story In the republic that is a metaphor for people and there lack of knowledge. Along with Socrates trying to guide them to the light (knowledge) and being killed.

34

Aristotle

Plato's pupil, created scientific method and tutors Alexander the Great

35

Mount Olympus

Mountain in north Greek, where the Greek gods are supposed to live

36

Zeus

Greek King god, god of the sky

37

Alexander the Great

King of Macedonia, son of Phillip the second, took over Persia, kept going and married a Persian. Legacy: Hellenistic culture (blend of Egyptian, Persian and Greek culture)

38

Philip the second

King of Macedonia, father of Alexander, Took over Greece and was the first person to use phalanx.

39

Hellenistic world

Blend of Persian, Egyptian and Greek cultures.

40

Alexandria

Egyptian city on the western part of the Nile delta. Was a center of commerce & trade for the Hellenistic culture. It had an incredible museum & library.

41

Epicureanism vs. stoicism

Epicureanism- made by Epicurus: based upon 5 senses, live for the now, achieve harmony of body and mind. DID NOT INVOLVE IN POLITICS
Stoicism- made by Zeno: live harmoniously with the will of god or the natural laws.

42

Persian war was between

United Greek vs Persia

43

Trojan war was between

Early Greeks (specifically Mycenaeans) vs Trojans

44

Peloponnesian war was between

Sparta vs Athens

45

Arête

"Excellence" Greeks strived for

46

Sparta vs Athens

Sparta vs Athens
same: both strived for excellence, lived on not fertile soil, depended upon water
Different:
Sparta- military based, no Olympics, strong army, led by elders, elected officials, military kings and an assembly, loud strong woman who could go into the military
Athens- architecture, art and Olympic Games based, strong navy, led by a direct democracy, quiet woman who raised children

47

Allegory of the cave brake down

Who wrote? Plato
Symbolism? The light: knowledge, darkness: ignorance, the man who try's to help them out: Socrates
What is an allegory? A story with grater symbolism
What book is it from? The Republic

48

Athena

Goddess of wisdom

49

Monarchy

Type of government led by a king

50

Aristocracy

Form of government which is led by nobles or aristocrats

51

Democracy types

Indirect- people vote for representative - representative makes decisions (republic)
Direct- people vote on every specific issue

52

Helots

In Sparta, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked on (slaves)

53

Archimedes

Hellenistic (Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture) scientist, studied at Alexandria, invented screw, pi and buoyancy (what makes the boat float)

54

Odysseus

Fought in the Trojan war, famous poem written by Homer about his 10 year journey back from the Trojan war

55

Cultural diffusion

Spreading of ideas/products from one culture to another

56

Ptolemy

After Alexander's death, he took over Egypt, declared himself Pharaoh & established a dynasty

57

Greek theater

Comedy, tragedy, and drama