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Middle Ages

Started about roman decline, also known as the dark ages or medieval period, 500-1500

1

Franks -

Held power in Gaul, led by Clovis (who brought Christianity)

2

Charles Martel

(Charles the hammer) who held power as a domo (mayor of the palace which held more power than the king) who extended the Franks region to the north south & east, he won the battle of Tours a giant the Muslims (if the Muslims won the USA would be muslim)

3

Clovis -

Led the Franks, and brought them Christianity through because his wife, Clothilde, appealing him to convert to her faith, Christianity. Clovis was fighting the Germanic army & appealed the Christian God and the franks won. Then Clovis & his army were baptized and eventually the whole nation.

4

Pepin the short -

Charles Martel's son, Pepin wanted to be king, fought off the Lombards for the church, then the pope anointed Pepin "king by the grace of God" which began the Carolingian Dynasty, led by Pepin's family

5

Charlemagne -

(Charles the great) Pepin the Short's son, 6'4, built an empire greatest han Any known Since ancient rome, spreading Christianity, Charlemagne traveled to Rom to crush an unruly mob that attacked the pope. In gratitude, the Pope Leo 3 crowned him emperor (joined Germanic power, the church and the to Roman Empire heritage)

6

Monasteries -

house for monks

7

Problems with church -

-priests marry
-simony: bishops sold church positions
-lay investiture: kings appointing bishops

8

Battle of Tours

In 719, under Charles Martel's rule, the franks defeated the Muslims, which is important because if Muslims had won, Western Europe and America might have become part of the Muslim empire, and we would be at Muhammad prep

9

Viking invasions and impact

Vikings attacked the Carolingian Empire from the north (Scandinavia). They raided with terrifying speed on boats that held 300 warriors going in and taking, striking quickly and were out before the Local could defend themselves.
Impact: kings could not protect their people, so people were loyal to local leader

10

Vikings are also called...

Norsemen & Northmen

11

Tithe -

Tax of 10% (1/10) of all you make that goes to the church

12

Feudalism -

Political system where nobles use kings land in exchange for loyalty, army and protection
chart: gives fief

13

Fief

Land grant in the feudal system

14

Lords -

Landowner who got a fief from the king, who grants a fief to a serf, who controls knights and his manor

15

Manors -

Lord's estate

16

Vassal -

Person who is granted a fief (lords, knights, serfs)

17

Knights -

Mounted horsemen who pledged to defend their lords' lands in exchange for fiefs

18

Serfs -

Peasants who could not lawfully leave the place they were born & worked on the land, most of the population, one of the reasons Middle Ages was called the dark ages

19

Chivalry -

Complex set of ideals demanding knight fight for 3 masters
-lady
-heavenly Lord
-earthy lord

20

Tournament

Knights mock battles

21

Troubadours

Traveling poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe

22

Siege weapons

Siege (military blockade to capture)
-stirrups
-warhorses
-caltrops: iron spikes on enemy's battlefield
-hurled rocks & fired arrows

23

Women's role in feudalism

Thought inferior to men, but a noblewoman could: inherit an estate from her husband, send knights to war, act as a military commander(when her husband was gone)
Limits: confined to home or convent sometimes, and held little property because land was passed down to sons

24

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Most Celebrated woman by troubadours, who became queen of England and bore Richard the lion-hearted and the john

25

Places to know on a map

Wales, England, Scotland, United Kingdom, Ireland, North Ireland, Britain

26

Sacraments

Important religious ceremonies which they believed led the way to heaven

27

Cannon law

Church law in matters such as marriage and religious practices

28

Lay investiture -

Appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles

29

Simony -

Bishops sold positions in church

30

Excommunication

Banishment from the church, which denies salvation & frees the kings vassals

31

Interdict

Many sacraments and religious sacraments could not be performed in the kings lands, then the people under the rule rebel because they think they will be doomed to hell

32

Clergy

Different ranks of religious officials

33

Concordat of worms

Fight over lay investiture lasted until 1122 when representatives of the emperor and the church ,et in the German city of Worms and created a compromise (Concordat of worms) which says church alone could appoint a bishop but the emperor could veto it

34

Holy Roman Empire

German-Italian empire Otto the great created that was first called the German empire

35

Gothic vs Romanesque architecture -

Romanesque: dark, one story, thick walls & roof, small windows, flat roof
Gothic: light, thinner & taller, spires (decorations reaching to God), big windows, vaulted roof, flying buttress (extra concrete pillar that is angles to hold some of the weight of the church)

36

Crusades -

1: Christians retake Jerusalem
2: Muslims regain holy land (Jerusalem)
3: Richard the lion-hearted led Christians to Jerusalem to fight the Muslims under control of a
Saladin, eventually they respected each other and created a treaty stating that Muslims control Jerusalem but Christians are free to visit

37

Reconquista -

The Spanish Christians drive out Muslims

38

Inquisition -

To unify & increase their power, Isabella & Ferdinand (spanish monarchs) used the Inquisition (court held by the church to drive out & kill all those he who weren't Christian)

39

Fleur de lis -

Is a legend that where Clovis was given a lily from Mary at baptism that was supposedly either made out of:
-Eden's tear when she commits original sin
- Mary's tear when watching Jesus die
Note: when pope Leo 3 crowned Charlemagne, he had a blue cloak with fleur de lis

40

3 field system -

Crop rotation broke into thirds
1/3 is lentils(beans, peas), 1/3 fallow (nothing), 1/3 wheat

41

Effects of the three field system -

1: longer life, stronger organs & immunity
2: population increase (stronger births)
3: stronger & larger work force
4: lentils become fertilizer after produced
5: increase productivity by 66%
6: longevity: longer life expectancy

42

Guild

Organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members
Ex: price for something, standard of quality

43

Commercial revolution

Expansion of trade & business in Europe

44

Vernacular

Everyday language of their homeland people wrote in so everybody could understand

45

William the conquerer -

William, who was the duke of Normandy (above France) invaded England after the former ruler, Edward the confessor died, he fought Harold Godwinson (leader of the English Anglo-Saxons) & killed him by an arrow shooting his eye & took England
Impact: William unified control of the lands & began a central government that people would be loyal to

46

Common law -

Over centuries, the unified law that judges formed. These are the basis for law in many English- speaking countries.

47

Magna Carta -

Paper that they made Bad john sign (when he led the people because his brother Richard the lionhearted was fighting the crusades) which guaranteed:
-jury in trail
-freedom of speech
-limit government power

48

Parliament -

Legislative group created by Edward 1

49

Avignon

City popes would start living in 1305 (for 69 years)

50

Great schism

After a pope died, the cardinals elected pope urban 5 to lead, but he was arrogant so they elected another pope, Clement 7. Both popes excommunicated each other & believed themselves the real pope. This split the church & created the great schism. So the council of Constance tried to mend it by creating a new real pope, but this just made a third pope. So they had all three resign & elected one new pope: Martin 5 which helped but the church was pretty weak because of the past.

51

Joan of Arc -

A 13 year old girl got a dream from god that inspired her to fight with the french to defeat England. But at the time the french were losing & decided to retreat from a battle. From Joan defied & started to fight back alone, which makes her whole army fight back & they eventually win battle & win 100 year war. So one girl saved all France ;) & this lead people to being loyal to France not their lords

52

What was bubonic plague carried by?

Flees on rats

53

Could have been carried by what people ? (Who were immune)

Mongolians

54

Symptoms of Bubonic (black) plague -

~ Painful swelling called Buboes (boo-boos)
~ high fever
~ blood vessel burst under = skin turns black = Black Death
Note: people thought airborne & untreated mortality rate: 75%

55

What song is about the bubonic plague ?

Ring around the Rosy

56

What does each chess piece represent? -

Pawn: small, largest number of them, serf, 1 space (cant go far) die first
Rook: (castle) manor, straight lines, on corners
Knights: can jump piece, 2 by 1
Queen: powerful, unlimited space. Why is queen is so important? Because of the code of chivalry & one of the masters is the kings lady aka the queen
King: 1 space in all directions (very limited by nobles) when king can't move, you win

57

100 year war -

England vs France (contains Joan of Arc)