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Flashcards in Renaissance Deck (60):
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The prince

Writer: Niccoló Machiavelli
About the imperfect conduct of humans, and believed political figures could go to any expense to effectively rule and keep their rule

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Machiavelli -

- wrote The Prince

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Humanism -

An art style that is based of classic Roman and Greek ideas, which focuses on human potential, achievements and the concept that God made us to do wonderful things

3

Gutenberg press -

Johann Gutenberg recreated a Chinese block printing device but it was too slow and made it movable, along with pressing all the blocks altogether simultaneously on one page.
First book printed: Bible
Importance: spreading and questioning ideas

4

Indulgences -

One of the main problems with the church in the renaissance where you pay money for the church to pardon your sins and believe you'll get into heaven

5

Martin Luther -

Friar who starts Reformation by writing the 95 theses, posting them on the church, being copied and everyone following his ideas.
Taught: salvation through faith (no $)
Teaching needs to be based on the Bible
All people are equal (don't need priests)
Eventually the Pope Leo 5 threatens to excommunicate him, he does nothing and get excommunicated.
Accidentally created Lutherans.

6

Edict of worms -

When the Catholics meet and decided to outlaw Luther and declare him a heretic which led him to being shelter by Prince Fredrick

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95 theses -

Formal statements telling the church what it's doing wrong, stapled to church door & Gutenberg press copied it, spreading ideas.

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Excommunication -

Banishment from the church which denies salvation

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John Calvin -

Wrote: institutes of the Christian religion
Created Calvinism: that is based on the ideas that: -only the "elect" go to heaven
-predestination: God already knows what your gonna do, it's fated, and it's already determined if your going or not going to heaven
-theocracy: government control by religious leader
-very strict morals
-started in Switzerland

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English Henry VIII (8) -

Needs an heir, marries Catherine (bares a girl) so he wants divorce but the church (asks pope but he says no because he doesn't wanna anger Catherine's nephew, Charles V) won't condone it so he creates the Anglican Church then marries Anne Boylen (bares Elizabeth) then beheads her, and continues to have 6 wives and one son, Edward: who rules at age 9 for 6 years and then Elizabeth takes over

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Catherine of Aragon

Henry 8th first wife, aunt of Charles V (German king)
Daughter: Mary

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Anne Boylen

Henry 8th second wife who bares Elizabeth & gets beheaded based on a claim of adultery

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Annulment

Set aside marriage by proving it's not legal ex: Vegas wedding

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Anglican Church (church of England) -

English Church instigated when Henry VIII had a temper tantrum because he couldnt marry Anne Boylen, then created by Elizabeth. Contains a mix of Christian & Presbyterian views like:
Christian: robes, crucifixes
Pres: English services, clergy can marry

15

Queen Elizabeth 1 -

Anne Boylen's daughter, who takes over England after Edward and Mary. She brings it back to Presbyterian views & creates the "Elizabethan Era".
Problems: $ income $ (so she goes to America to get money)

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Jesuits -

Society of Jesus

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Ignatius of Loyala

Starts Jesuits to get people to stay Catholic & to create schools to stop the Protestant & Lutheran reformation

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Huguenots

French Calvinists

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Renaissance -

"Rebirth" 1350-1650

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Naturalism

Art and literature based on reality

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Horizon line

Where land meets sky in a painting or work of art, farthest place in painting (most depth), also called Vanishing point

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Perspective

Way you create art, ideas that influence your painting

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Vitruvian man

Author: Leonardo da Vinci
- shows perfect human body
- shows that we are made by God (with our hands and legs put we can create a perfect circle)

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School of Athens

Author: Raphael
- is a balance of chaos & harmony
- contains all of the great Greek philosophers

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David

- Sculpture
Creator: Michelangelo
- depicts perfect human body and David from David & Goliath

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Sistine Chapel

Painter: Michelangelo
- in Rome
- has a couple jokes in it when he got mad at Pope Julius 2 for not paying him

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Neo-Platonism -

Man is a reflection of divine power (better body, more perfect, more Godly)

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The last supper

Painter: Leonardo da Vinci

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Protestant Reformation -

"Protesting Princes" Created when German princes withdraw from Charles V rule (Germany)

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Who made the printing press?

Johann Gutenberg

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Act of Supremacy

Henry the 8th breaking away from the church & saying he is the absolute ruler

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Leonardo da Vinci -

Studied and dissected to understand nature
Created: Mona Lisa, last supper, vitruvian man

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Raphael -

Painter who wanted to show a world of harmony, order and balance
Created: school of Athens

34

Michelangelo -

Painter, sculpture and architect
Used Neo- Platonism
Created: David, Sistine Chapel

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Patron -

People who financially supported the arts, usually popes

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Medici

(Family) that acted like the Florence government was a democracy but actually controlled It by wealth & influenced people by loans because they owned many banks

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Council of Trent

Collect all Catholics religious officials:
Decide:
- going to make churches beautiful (have Michelangelo paint)
- faith & good works to go to heaven
- church's interpretation of the Bible is final

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Reasons the renaissance begins ?

- cities (bigger population = education = new ideas)
- wealth & ability to buy unnecessary items
- professional artists (can make a living)
- no more bubonic plague & worrying about food
- Greek & roman heritage

39

I would go over the slideshows he posted on schoology once

:)

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Hernán Cortéz -

Spanish explorer who took over the Aztecs because they all thought he was a god & by the time they figured out he wasn't he had killed them all

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Montazuma -

Aztec leader that is overthrown by Cortéz

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Quetzalcoatl

"Feathered serpent" Aztec god, the god they think Cortez is when he comes.

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Tenochtitlan

city state that was the capital of the Aztec empire

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Mayans

People who came to America when there was a lang bridge in the ice age and were left there when it melted. They had a writing system, cared about the stars, created calendar and were scientifically and mathematically ahead of their time. Lives in South America and eventually went through a period of war and left into the jungle.

45

Blood letting

Mayans believed that the soul is in the blood, so royal blood is the most powerful substance on earth, so the rulers would go onto temple & bleed themselves especially in tongue and genitals, supposedly would help it rain and keep the Gods happy

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Mayan ball game

Game where two teams played in a small hallway and tried to use all parts of their body but legs to get the ball in the hoop, the winning team was sacrificed

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Utopia

"No place"

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Vernacular

Common language, not Latin

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Humanism

Intellectual movement studying Greek & roman

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What does Machiavellian mean (like Niccoló Machiavelli) ?

Harsh, unethical

50

Another world for secular

"Wordly"

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Ironic about Henry 8 story?

The girl he didn't want (Elizabeth) rules outstandingly as a woman & Edward only ruled for 6 years

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Notable things Elizabeth 1 does ?

English navy defeated Spanish Armada which made her able to explore America & have power on the water (power shift),

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Group that believed that only the baptism of an adult is valid?

Anabaptist

54

Where does The renaissance begin?

{Northern Italy} because they had patrons (Medici) & big populations

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Know pic of David, Mona Lisa, & school of Athens

Know that David is based upon Neo-Platonism & know the creators of all these works of art

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Ninja turtles & their weapons

Leonardo da Vinci: sword- best
Raphael: little swords
Michelangelo: nun- chunks
Donatello: big stick

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Conquistadors

Spanish that conquer western (USA)

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English reformation

A change in the church when Henry the 8th wanted to divorce Catherine & marry Anne, but couldn't get annulment (divorce) so starts Anglican Church & Elizabeth technically solidifies it.