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Old Regime -

Feudalism in the Middle ages

1

King Louis XVI (16) -

A king who inherited lots of debt from King Louis XIV (14). He married Marie Antoinette & after the third estate stormed the Bastille, he ran away. But he was caught at the border to Austria and was brought back and sentenced to death by the guillotine

2

Estates 1-2-3 -

1st- clergy (owned 10%, was 2% of population)
2nd- rich nobles (owned 20%, was 1%)
3rd- (97% of people) includes:
~ bourgeoisie: merchants/artisans, pretty rich but no family name, high taxes
~ workers: cooks, servants, ect., hungry
~peasant: 80% of people! half of their income went to taxes

3

Marie Antoinette -

"Madame Deficit" women who married Lou's XVI & lost a lot of his money for France

4

Estates General -

Assembly of representatives from all three estates called to get approval for tax reform, but the clergy combined with the nobles would always outvote the third estate so the third estate got mad & created National Assembly (made of only third estate people)

5

National Assembly -

Collection of the third estate that passes laws and reform for the french people (government after battalion & King Louis XVI's reign) Voting by delegates

6

Great fear -

Wave of senseless panic because they thought nobles hire people to terrorize peasants after the battalion when there was just about no control & no feudal documents so the National Assembly took over

7

Bastille -

Began the French Revolutuon, when the third estate took a jail and got gunpowder and eventually stormed castle

8

Declaration of the rights of man -

After the third estate took over & burned feudal papers & the national Assembly wrote a new constitution called the Declaration of the rights of man

9

Palace of Versailles -

Place that Louis XIV (14) lived & made super extravagant leaving no money for the third estate (symbol of corruption)

10

Guillotine -

Beheading machine used to kill Louis XVI that had a heavy knife that dropped on you & severed you head quickly. It was created as a more humane way of killing & doctors would see how long people could respond after death

11

Reign of terror -

When the committee of public safety (1783-1794), who was lead by Maximilian Robespiere controlled France (government after Louis, before "Directory") they increased army and guillotined anybody who said anything bad about them

12

Maximilien Robespierre -

Lead the committee of public safety into terror

13

Napoleon Bonaparte -

Military genius, brilliant strategist, arrogant 5'7' man who took France from Directory in a coup

14

Coup d'état

"Blow of state", saying about when Napoleon took over France swiftly, also sometimes called a coup

15

Napoleonic code -

System of laws created by Napoleon, this code made the people from Saint Dominigue slaves which led to a report and loss of many soldiers

16

Toussiant L'Ouverture

Fought against Napoleon and freed the slaves creating the country of Haiti

17

Battle of Trafalgar -

Naval war: Britain: 19 boats vs french: 33 boats When the french gets destroyed by the British under Horatio Nelson on sea which is important because they lose control of the sea for 300 years and can't invade Britain
Win: Britain

18

What are the reasons for Napoleons decline? -

Continental system, invasion of Portugal and invasion of Russia

19

Why is the continental system one of Napoleons mistakes ? -

Want to make France self-suffice not so Blockades Britain which creates no trade. This makes Russia mad, and Portugal continues to trade behind their back. Britain also puts an even stronger blockade on French

20

Why is the Invasion Portugal one of napoleons mistakes? -

French fins out Portugal is secretly trading with Britain so they come over to fight. The Spanish and Portuguese people don't like the French very much because they combined church and state so all the citizens fight when no one can know who did it (guerrilla warfare = can't see enemy) this eventually hurts the French army

21

Why is the invasion of Russia one of Napoleon's mistakes ? -

While the French come to Russia, the Russians retreat while burning everything leaving nothing in their path, therefore the French take over some of Russia but they have no food. Consequently, they eventually turn around and lose and extensive amount of people on the journey

22

Scorched Earth Policy

The tactic the Russians used, burning crops and slaughter livestock to leave nothing for the enemy

23

Waterloo

Battle British vs. French, Prussia shows up and the French are forced to retreat , this defeat ended napoleons last bid for power (also known as "the hundred days")

24

Congress of Vienna

Series of meeting supposed to be 4 weeks, ending up being 8 months

25

Legitimacy

Agreeing that as many as possible of the rulers that Napoleon had driven from their thrones should be restored to power

26

Copernicus -

Created Heliocentric theory (sun ☀️ in center)

27

Kepler -

Brahe's (man who tracked planets & looked up all the time) assistant who mathematically demonstrated Copernicus theory, found elliptical orbits

28

Ptolemy & Aristotle

Thought the earth was in the center of the universe (geocentric theory)

29

Enlightenment

Age of reason, revolution of ideas

30

Baroque

Art that was created because of the council of Trent to make people want to go to church

31

Mary Wollstonecraft -

Adamant believer in the rights of women needing education & believed we should be doctors, politics & nurses
Book: a vindication of the rights of women

32

Montesquieu -

Studied politics, thought Britain had the greatest government of the day because it had executive, Legislative & judicial (separation of powers) CHECKS & BALANCES

33

John Locke -

Positive view of humanity + believed we should govern ourselves & the leaders just watch over, belief in NATURAL RIGHTS (people born free, equal & with rights to life, liberty & property)

34

Galileo Galilei -

Found that everything falls/accelerates by 32 ft/sec, recreated the telescope but used it for space

35

Geocentric theory -

Earth centered theory

36

Heliocentric theory -

Sun centered theory

37

Voltaire -

Pen name: Voltaire
Real name: Francois Marie Arouet
Made fun of everyone & promoted freedom of speech

38

Rousseau -

-Committed to freedom, believed we should follow our primitive nature &; not be in cities or civilized
-believed humans had agreement to create society & government eg: do when we need to

39

Triangular trade -

America -sugar tobacco, cotton--> Europe (factory)
-- cotton, shirts, rum, textiles, clothes, guns-->
Africa --slaves = labor --> America

40

Middle passage -

Route on a boat through the triangular trade from Africa to America. Was a terrible journey that was six weeks long where slaves layer on top of each other and goods were transported

41

Vasco de Gama -

Portuguese explorer, first European to reach India by sea

42

Bartolomeu Dias

Portuguese explorer who sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa

43

Why did people sail ? (3G's) -

God
Glory
Gold

44

Ferdinand Magellan -

First guy to sail all around the world

45

Of the estates, who pays taxes?

The third estate

46

When and what is Guerrilla Warfare?

In Spain & Portugal when French tries to invade, it is anonymous killing of French army

47

Who & what did notation Nelson do ?

He was a British army general, Napoleon's nemesis who he fought at the battle of Trafalgar & died, but won the battle for Britain!

48

List & explain 3 reasons for the French Revolution

1: Huge gap between the rich & poor
2: France is in a lot of debt from Louis XIV & Marie
3: 3rd estate has no control in the estates general
4: enlightened thinking
5: bad harvest -> no food

49

3 things the congress of Vienna declares

- balance of power (makes France smaller)
-containment (build up neighboring countries)
-legitimacy (restore prior rulers & nobles from before the napoleonic wars)
{not in favor of radical enlightened ideas}

50

Who made the palace of Versailles? -

Louis XIV (14th)

51

The world revolves around the sun in what?

Elliptical orbits. (Found by Kepler)

52

World of matter

Idea that Everything, everywhere can be explained by matter and everything can be explained, contradicts catholic view of the time

53

Taille

French word for tax; that was taken from the third estate

54

Enlightened absolutism

Leader that is appointed by God and special; which is disliked in the revolution

55

Separation of powers

Government power needs to be spread out and create branches like Montesquieu's idea of checks and balances. No more monarchy.