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Flashcards in Gross Anatomy Exam 2 Injuries Deck (26)

Fracture at the clavicle

-common in children, indirect blow FOOSH, direct fall on shoulder
-SCM elevates medial clavicle, traps unable to hold up, coracoclavicular ligament prevents AC dislocation
-no nerve damage


Transverse Fracture of shaft

-results from direct blow
-deltoid will carry proximal fragments laterally
-radial nerve is at risk of damage


Spiral Fracture of Shaft

-indirect result of FOOSH
-overriding of fractured end, foreshortening
-radial nerve is at risk of damage


Intercondylar Fractures

-results in a severe fall on flexed elbow
-may separate condyle from shaft completely
-may damage median or ulnar nerves


Fracture of Radius or Ulna

-usually from severe injury, can be independent, Colle's fracture distal 2cm of radius, common in adults 50+ and females, slip and FOOSH
-ulnar styloid often avulsed, distal fragments of radius is displaced posteriorly, posterior angulation happens in the forearm, dinner fork deformity
-no nerve damage and it heals well because of great blood supply to are


Fracture to Scaphoid

-most commonly fractured carpal, fall on hand when ABD, fracture goes across narrow part of scaphoid
-pain on lateral side during ext. and ABD, radiograph shows fracture 10-14 days later, healing is slow b/c of bad BS, avascular necrosis, may need surgical fusion
-no nerve damage, bad blood supply


Separated Shoulder

-AC joint is weak and easily injured by direct blow, contact sports, FOOSH
-severe when both acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligaments tear, from CC log to shoulder falls, acromion passes inf. to clavicle
- no nerve damage


Injury to Axillary Nerve (C5-6)

-fracture of surgical neck, dislocation go GH joint, compression by crutches, intramuscular injection
-deltoid atrophy becomes flattened, ABD of 15-90 affected
-Axillary nerve damaged, loss of sense to part of pros arm, superior lateral brachial cutaneous n.


Rotator Cuff Injury

-injury or disease can be the cause, continued use of limb above horizontal
-may tear 1 or more SITS, produces instability of GH joint, supraspinatous most commonly injured, more avascular near acromion, no ability to ABD the first 15 degrees
-no real nerve damage


Injury to Long Thoracic Nerve

-nerve takes superficial course lying on serratus anterior, knife fight, mastectomy or weapon directed at thoracic
-medial border of scapula moves lat and posteriorly, away from thoracic wall when hand is pressed against wall, winged scapula, arm can't ABD past 90 b/c scap rot.
-no sensory loss


Brachial Plexus Lesions (Upper

-caused by pathology, trauma or compression, roots or trunks can be hurt
-proximal muscles can have complete or incomplete paralysis and ability to feel pain


Brachial Plexus Lesions (Lower)

-caused by pathology, trauma or compression, roots or trunk can be hurt,
-distal muscles are affected and can have paresis, paralysis or ability to feel pain


Lower Brachial Plexus Injury

-much less common, when upper limb is pulled superiorly
-injures inferior trunk (8-T1) Klumke Palsy, may avulse roots, claw hand, unopposed action of extensors
-sensory loss to medial part of dorsum of hand by dorsal branch of ulnar n. AND medial 1/2 digits of palmar surface by Palmar branch and Palmar digital branches of Ulnar


Upper Brachial Plexus Injury

-injury from increased angle b/w neck and shoulder, horse throws body, baby with shoulder dystocia
-streches or tears C5-6 nerve roots and superior trunk, Erb-Duchenne Palsy = paralysis of shoulder and arm, waiters tip position, can't ADD, MR or ext arm
-sensory loss to superior lateral cutaneous n AND lateral antebrachial cutaneous n.


Bursitis of Elbow

-falls on elbow or from infection of the skin covering olecranon, repeated excessive pressure causes inflammation
-subcutaneous olecranon bursitis, students elbow
-no nerve damage


Dislocation of Elbow Joint

-fall on hand when elbow flexed, hyperextension, blows that drive ulna posterior and posteriolateral
-radius and ulna dislocate posteriorly, ulnar collateral is often torn, head of radius, coronoid or olecranon may fracture
-Ulnar nerve damaged, numbness in little fingers and weakness of flex and ulnar deviation


Biceps Tendonitis

-long head of biceps brachia as it moves in IT grove, sports involving throw or raquet, repetitive micro trauma, tight narrow IT groove
-produces tenderness/pain and crepitis (crackling sound)
-no nerve damage


Rupture of Tendon of Long head of BB

-occurs in 35+, wear and tear inflamed tendon in IT groove, overhead movements and forceful flexion
-tendon torn from supraglenoid tubercle, associated with a pop and snap, results in popeye deformity
-no nerve damage


Injury to Musculocutaneus Nerve (C5-7)

-rare injury but from knife fight
-arm flexors, shoulder flex weakened, flex of elbow is weakened, supination of forearm weak
-sensory loss to lateral surface of forearm by lateral ante brachial cutaneous n.


Injury to Radial Nerve (C5-8)
1st type

-most commonly injured n., symptoms depend on level
-to radial superior to origin of its branches to triceps, improper crutches, saturday night palsy, post dislocation of GH joint
-wrist drop, inability to ext wrist and digits at MP joints, wrist assumes flexed position
-sensory loss to inferior lateral arm, posterior arm, forearm, dorsum of hand and lateral fingers by the lower brachial cutaneous, post brachial cutaneous and ante brachial cutaneous, superficial radial nerves


2nd type of Radial Nerve Injury

-injury to radial groove, only weakens the triceps, fracture to humeral shaft
-only medial head of triceps is affected, posterior forearm compartment affected, wrist drop
-sensory loss to dorsum of hand and lateral fingers, superficial radial nerve


Medial Epicondylitis

-inflammation of common flexor tendon, golfers elbow
-overuse of flexors that require gripping
-pitchers, golfers and rock climbers
_RICE to recover


Injury to Median Nerve (C6-T1) at Elbow

-fracture of lacerations at supracondylar ridge, loss of flex. of IP in 1-3 digits, weakened flex of PIP in 4 and 5, weakened flex of MP at 2 and 3, thenar muscles function is lost, Hand of Benidiction
-sensory loss to lateral 2/3 of palm and palmar side of radial 3 1/2 digits


Impingment of Median nerve at AIN

-flexor digitorum profundus and flexor pollicis longus are affected
attempt to make an okay sign results in a pinch posture


Pronators Syndrome

-nerve entrapment impingement syndrome, compression of median nerve by pronator teres, often happen during pregnancy
-pain and tenderness at proximal aspect of forearm, Hyperesthemia of central palm and palmar aspects of radial 3 1/2 digits, weakness with flexion and pronation of forearm


Injury to Ulnar Nerve

27% of nerve lesions effect ulnar n.
-posterior to medial epicondyle, cubital tunnel, at the wrist and in the hand
-power to ulnar deviate is gone, wrist flexion is impaired, cant make a fist, IP joints cent extend, claw hand
-sensory loss to medial aspect of palm and dorsum of hand as well as medial 1 1/2 digits