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Flashcards in Gross Anatomy Exam 3 Deck (136)
1

6 regions of the lower limb

Gluteal
Femoral (thigh)
Knee
Leg
Ankle
Foot

2

Os Coxae

ilium, ischium, pubis, acetabulum

3

Ilium

ala, iliac crest, iliac tubercle, ASIS, AIIS, PSIS, PIIS, Iliac fossa, body, posterior andterior and inferior gluteal lines, auricular surface, iliac tuberosity

4

Ischium

body, ramus, ischial tuberosity, ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch, greater sciatic notch

5

Pubis

body, superior rams, inferior ramus, symphaseal surface, pubic crest, pubic tubercle, pectin pubis

6

Obturator Foramen

large oval opening in hip bone
surrounded by ischial and pubic rami
closed by obturator membrane creating the obturator canal

7

Acetabulum

large cup shaped cavity on lateral aspect of hip bone
articulates with femoral head and forms hip joint
Acetabular notch, acetabular fossa, lunate surface

8

Femur

head with fovea, neck, greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, intertrochanteric line, intertrochanteric crest, quadrate tubercle, trochanteric fossa, shaft, line aspera - medial and lateral lips, gluteal tuberosity, pectineal line, medial and lateral supracondylar lines, medial and lateral femoral condyles, intercondylar fossa, patellar surface, adductor tubercle

9

Patella

Base, apex and articular surface

10

Tibia

shin bone, on antero lateral side of leg, articulates with femoral condyle superiorly, and talus inferiorly, fibular laterally, transmits body weight to foot
medial and lateral condyles, superior articular surface, intercondylar eminence, intercndylar tubercles, ant and post intercondylar areas, anterolateral tibial tubercle (Gerdy's tubercle), tibial tuberosity, fibular articular facet, ant border of tibia, medial surface, medial malleoulus, interosseous border, fibular notch, soleal line, groove for tibialis post tendon, inferior articular surface

11

Fibula

no function of weight bearing, articulates with tibia and talus
head, neck, shaft, ant interosseus and post borders, medial post and lateral surfaces, lateral malleolus

12

Tarsals

Talus, calcaneus, Navicular, cuboid, cuneiforms

13

Talus

no muscular or tendinous attachment, only bone that articulate with leg, divides body weight between calcaneus and forefoot
trochlea body, posterior process, head, neck

14

Calcaneus

largest, strongest bone in foot
transmits majority of body weight from talus to ground
superior surface, anterior surface, fibular trochlea, sustentaculum tali, calcaneal tuberosity

15

Navicular

flattened, boat shaped bone
b/w talus and 2 cuniforms
navicular tuberosity

16

Cuboid

most lateral bone in distal row of tarsals
b/w calcaneus post and 4th and 5th metatarsals anteriorly
tuberosity of cuboid, groove fro tendon of fibularis longus

17

Cuneiforms

each articulates with navicular posteriorly and base appropriate metatarsals anteriorly
medial (1st) largest
Intermediate (2nd) smallest
lateral (3rd) articulate with cuboid

18

Metatarsals

make up forefoot, 5 numbered from medial to lateral, 1st is the shortest and 2nd is the longest
base, shaft, head

19

Phalanges

base shaft and head

20

Sacroiliac Joint

weight bearing compound joint b/w sacrum and iliac
syndesmosis posteriorly b/w tubercles and synovial anteriorly b/w auricular surfaces
Ligmaments
Anterior scroiliac
Interosseous sacroiliac
posterior sacroiliac
sacrotuberous
sacrospinous

21

Pubic Symphysis

fibrocartilage disk at union of pubic bones in anterior median plane, thicker in females
Ligaments
superior pubic ligament
inferior pubis ligament

22

Greater Sciatic Foramen

piriformis muscle
superior gluteal n.a.v.
inferior gluteal n.a.v.
internal pudendal a.v.
pudendal n.
posterior femoral cutaneous n.
sciatic n.
nerve to obturator internus and quadratus femoris

23

Lesser Sciatic Foramen

obturator internus tendon
nerve to obturator internus
internal pudendal a.v.
pudendal n.

24

Hip Joint

designed for stability over wide range of movement, synovial joint
connects pelvic girdle and lower limb, ball and socket b/w head of femur and acetabulum
femoral head covered with articular cartilage and acetabulum
acetabulum labrum
permits flex/ext, MR/LR, ABD/ADD and circumduction

25

Ligaments of Hip Joint

transverse acetabular ligament
orbicular zone
ischiofemoral ligament
iliofemoral ligament
pubofemoral ligament
ligamentum capitis femoris

26

superior gluteal artery

from internal iliac artery
anastamoses with inferior gluteal and medial femoral circumflex arteries
participates in trochanteric anastamosis
superficial branch
deep branch

27

inferior gluteal artery

from internal iliac artery
anastamoses with superior gluteal artery
participates in cruciate anastamosis

28

Internal pudendal artery

from internal iliac artery
passes thru gluteal region between sacrotuberous ad sacrospinous ligaments
does not supply anything in gluteal region

29

Profunda Femoris artery

from femoral artery
medial femoral circuflex artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery - ascending, transverse and descending branch
perforating arteries - usually 4 of them the 1st participates in anastamoses with inferior gluteal artery and cruciate anastamosis

30

Gluteal Veins

tributaries of internal iliac vein
accompany corresponding arteries
communicate with tributaries of femoral vein, provide alternative route for blood from lower limbic femoral vein is occluded or ligated

31

Cruciate Anastamosis

important for keeping lower limb viable
stenosis, damage or blockage of the external iliac or femoral arteries could cause series issues
provides connection between internal iliac arteries and femoral arteries - via profunda femurs artery
Involves the following arteries
inferior gluteal artery
medial femoral circumflex artery
lateral femoral circumflex artery ascending and transverse
1st perforating artery of profunda femoris

32

Superior Gluteal nerve

from VPR L4-S1
supplies gluteus medis, minims and tensor fascia lata

33

Inferior Gluteal nerve

from VPR L5-S2
supplies gluteal maximus muscle

34

Sciatic Nerve

from VPR L4-S3
does not supply anything in the gluteal region

35

Nerve to Obturator Femoris

from VPR L4-S1
supplies quadratus femurs and inferior gamellus muscles

36

Nerve to Obturator Internus

from VPR L5-S2
supplies obturatr interns and superior gemellus muscles

37

Pudendal Nerve

from VPR S2-4
does not supply anything in gluteal region

38

Clunial Nerve

superior from DPR of L1-3, supplies superior buttock
middle from DPR S1-3, supply skin over sacrum and adjacent buttock
inferior from posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

39

Lumbosacral Plexus

consists of VPR from L1-L4 with inconsistent contributions from T12
formed within psoas major muscle
each receives postsynaptic sympathetics via tray rami communicantes`

40

Iliohyopgastric and ilioinguinal nerves

VPR of L1
innervate the abdominal wall muscle and L1 derma tom anteriorly

41

Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

VPR of L2-3
enters thigh deep to inguinal ligament and medial in ASIS
sensory to anterolateral skin of thigh

42

Femoral Nerve

Posterior divisions of VPR of L2-4
passes deep to inguinal ligament and then to anterior thigh
innervates the hip flexors and knee extensors, sensory to anterior and medial thigh and anteromedial leg and foot

43

Genitofemoral Nerve

VPR of L1-L2
genital branch passes through deep inguinal ring
sensory to anterolateral skin of scrotum/labia majora, motor to the cremaster muscle
femoral branch passes along external iliac artery, sensory innervation over femoral triangle

44

Obturator Nerve

anterior divisions VPR or L2-4
motor to medial thigh muscles and sensory to medial thigh above knee

45

Lumbosacral Trunk

VPR L4-5
participates with S1-S4 in forming the sacral plexus

46

Sacral Plexus of Nerves

composed of VPR of S1-S4 and lumbosacral trunk
all branches except those to pelvic diaphragm leave pelvis via greater sciatic foramen above or below pelvis
all branches receive tray rami commincans from sympathetic trunk

47

Superior Gluteal Nerve

posterior divisions VPR L4-S1
enters gluteal region via greater sciatic foramen
sensory to hip and motor to gluteus medius, minimus and tensor fascia lata

48

Inferior Gluteal Nerve

posterior divisions VPR L5-S2
enters the gluteal region via the greater sciatic foramen
sensory to hip and motor to gluteus maximus muscle

49

Posterior Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

anterior and posterior divisions of VPR S1-3
sensory to skin of upper thigh, lateral perineum, inferior buttock, posterior thigh and popliteal fossa

50

Sciatic nerve

anterior and posterior divisions of VPR L4-S3
located midway b/ ischial tuberosity and greater trochanter in gluteal region
composed of two division: tibial (anterior div) and common fibular (posterior div)
sensory to hip, knee, ankle and all foot joints, posterior and anteriolateral leg, skin of foot
motor to hamstrings, hamstring portions of adductor magnus and all leg and foot muscles

51

Pudendal Nerve

anterior divisions of VPR S2-4
exits pelvis via greater sciatic foramen below piriformis muscle b/w sacrotuberour and sacrospinous ligaments
enters perineum via lesser sciatic forament
sensory to perineal skin, penis and clitoris
motor to perineal muscles, pelivc diaphragm and external anal sphincter

52

Nerve to Quadriceps Femoris

anterior divisions of VPR L4-S1
enters gluteal region via greater sciatic nerve
sensory to hip and motor to quadratus femoris and inferior gemellus

53

Nerve to Obturator Internus

posterior divisions of VPR L5-S2
exits pelvis via greater sciatic foramen and enter pelvis via lesser sciatic foramen
sensory to hip and motor to superior gemellus and obturator internus muscles

54

Fascia Lata

continuous superiorly with: anteriorly with the inguinal ligament pubic arch body of pubis and pubic tubercle, posteriorly and lateral with iliac crest, and posterior medial with sacrum coccyx sacrotuberous ligament and ischial tuberosity ischopubic ramu
conituous inferiorly with: exposed parts of bone around knee, popliteal fascia, deep fascia of leg inferior to the knee
Thickens laterally to form Iliotibial band:
-shared aponeurosis of tensor fascia lat a and glutes maximus
-from iliac tubercle to anterolateral tubercle of tibia (gerdy's tubercle)

55

3 compartments of Fascia Lata

Anterior, Medial and Posterior
Septa of compartments: Lateral is the strongest, Medial and an unnamed

56

Saphenous Opening

gap or hiatus inferior to medial part of inguinal ligament
has smooth medial margin
superior, lateral and inferior margins form a sharp crescentic edge - falciform margin, joined at the medial margin by cruciform fascia
-localied membranous tissue that closes saphenous opneing
pierced by numerous openings for lymphatic vessels and great saphenous vein

57

Posterior Thigh

have common origin
cross hip and knee joints
share common insertion
supplied by perforating branches of profunda femurs artery

58

Inferior Gluteal Artery

from the internal iliac artery
supplies the superior part of hamstrings

59

Perforating Arteries

from the profunda femoris artery
supply hamstring muscles

60

Perforating Veins

accompany arteries of same name
drain to profunda femoris vein
communicate superiorly with inferior gluteal vein and inferiorly with popliteal vein

61

Sciatic Nerve

from VPR L4-S3
descends in posterior thigh deep to biceps femoris muscle
composed of 2 divisions

62

Tibial Division of Sciatic Nerve

L4-S3
supplies the true hamstrings

63

Common Fibular Division of Sciatic Nerve

L4-S2
supplies short head of biceps femoris muscle

64

Posterio Cunteous Nerve of the Thigh

from VPR S1-3
supplies skin over posterior thigh and popliteal fossa

65

Anterior Thigh Muscles

generally innervated by femoral nerve
contains flexors of hip and extensors of knee
includes pectinous, iliopsoas, sartorius, and quadriceps femoris
supplied by femoral and profunda femoris arteries

66

Medial Thigh Muscles

comprises the adductor group
includes adductor longs, brevis and magnus and gracillis muscles
all supplied by obturator nerve, except hamstring part of adductor magnus muscle
supplied by obturator artery (anterior or posterior)

67

Adductor Hiatus

opening b/w distal attachments of two adductor magnus parts
located just lateral and superior to adductor tubercle
Transmits femoral artery and vein to/from adductor canal to/from popliteal fossa
Does not contain saphenous nerve

68

Femoral Artery

direct continuation of external iliac artery distal to inguinal ligament and primary a of lower limb
this is one of 4 places to take a pulse
passes thru the femoral triangle lateral to femoral v.
branches into descending genicular artery before adductor hiatus
trerminates as it traverses adductor hiatus to become the politeal artery

69

Superficial Circumflex iliac artery

from the femoral artery just past inguinal l.
parallels inguinal l. towards ASIS

70

Superficial Epigastric Artery

from femoral artery
runs subcutaneously towards umbilicus

71

Superficial and Deep External Pudendal Arteries

from femoral artery
runs to skin of scrotum and labia majora

72

Profunda Femoris Artery

from lateral or posterior side of femoral artery
chief artery of thigh
gives rise to;
medial femoral circumflex artery- supplies blood to the head and neck of femur is involved in cruciate anastamosis
lateral femoral circumflex artery - mainly supplies the lateral thigh muscles
divides into ascending (cruciate anastamosis), transverse (cruciate anastamosis), descending (genicular anastamosis)
gives of 3 perforating arteries and the 4 terminates it
1st perforating is involved in cruciate anastamosis
traverses the adductor canal and branches off to

73

Descending Genicular Artery

beaches off the femoral artery just before femoral artery passes thru adductor hiatus
participates in genicular anastamosis

74

Obturator Artery

from the internal iliac artery
20% branch from inferior epigastric, accessory or replacement obturator arteries
Divides into the anterior branch of obturator artery and posterior branch of obturator artery
Also forms the ace tabular branch which supplies the head of femur thru the ligament to the head of the femur

75

Great Saphenous Vein

from medial spect of dorsal venous arch
ascends anteriorly to medial malleolus
passes posteriorly at medial femoral condyle, found in subcutaneous tissue of medial thigh
traverses saphenous opening, drains into femoral vein

76

Accessory Saphenous Vein

joining of medial and posterior thigh tributaries
when present is main communication b/w saphenous veins

77

Femoral Vein

direct continuation of popliteal vein as it traverses adductor hiatus
ascends thru adductor canal
enters femoral sheath lateral to femoral canal
becomes external iliac vein posterior to inguinal ligament

78

Lymphatics

pass the superficial inguinal nodes then to external iliac nodes

79

Femoral Nerve

from posterior divisions VPR L2-4
located in the femoral triangle
Femoral cauda equina- collective name for numerous branches of femoral nerve found in femoral triangle
supplies anterior compartment muscles

80

Saphenous Nerve

comes from the femoral nerve
runs in the adductor canal but does not pass thru the adductor hiatus
does not supply anything in the thigh but it does in the leg

81

Anterior Cutaneous branch

Gives rise to the medial cutaneous branch and the intermediate cutaneous branch

82

Obturator Nerve

from anterior division of VPR L2-4
exits the obturator canal, divides into the anterior and posterior branches that are separated by adductor brevis muscle
Ant. branch supplies longs, brevis and gracilic
Post. branch supplies brevis, and adductor part of adductor magnus and obturator externus
Sensory to skin of medial thigh just above knee

83

Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve

From VPR L2-3
supplies skin on anterior and lateral thigh

84

Genitofemoral Nerve

From VPR L1-2
Femoral branch supplies the skin over lateral femoral triangle

85

Ilioinguinal Nerve

From VPR L1
supplies the skin of upper medial thigh

86

Femoral Triangle

located inferior to inguinal ligament
N.A.V.L.
boundaries: base - inguinal l.
medial border - lateral border of adductor longs
lateral border - sartorius m.
Floor - pectinous m and iliopsoas m
Roof - fascia lata, cribriform fascia, subcutaneous tissue, skin
contains: femoral n., femoral a., femoral v. and deep inguinal lymph nodes and vessels

87

Retro Inguinal space

is deep to the inguinal ligament
divided into 2 compartments by iliopectineal arch
thickening of iliopsoas fascia
from inguinal l. to iliopubic eminence
two compartments are lacuna musculorum and lacuna vasculorum

88

Lacuna Musculorum

lateral compartment
outside femoral sheath
lateral to fermoral artery
contains the iliopsoas muscle and femoral nerve

89

Lacuna Vasculorum

medial compartment
encloses femoral sheath
contains femoral a. and several branches
femoral v. and tributaries
deep inguinal lymph nodes and lymph vessels
weak area and site of femoral hernia

90

Femoral Sheath

funnel shaped fascial tube
lines lacuna vasculorum
formed by transversals fascia and iliopsoas fascia in abdomen
terminates inferiorly by blending with adventitia of femoral vessels
encloses proximal parts of femoral vessels and creates femoral canal medial to them
allows femoral a. and v. to glide deep to inguinal l.
Divided into 3 compartments; lateral, intermediate and medial

91

Lateral Compartment of Femoral Sheath

for the femoral artery

92

Intermediate Compartment of Femoral Sheath

for the femoral vein

93

Medial Compartment of Femoral Sheath

constitutes femoral canal where lymphatics pass and site of herniation

94

Femoral Canal

b/w medial edge of femoral sheath and femoral vein
extends to level of saphenous opening
allows femoral vein to expand in temporary stasis and times of increase venous return from lower limb
contains loose CT and lymphatics
base of canal is femoral ring

95

Femoral ring

small opening at proximal end of femoral canal
closed extra peritoneal fat and parietal peritoneum
pierced by lymphatics b/w inguinal and external iliac nodes

96

Adductor Canal

also know as sub sartorial canal or Hunters Canal
narrow passageway in middle of thigh
extends from apex of femoral triangle to adductor hiatus
Passage for: femoral a. and v., saphenous n. and N. to vastus medialis
Boundaries: Anteriorly and laterally - vastus medialis, Posteriorly - adductor longus and magnus, Medially - sartorius muscle
Anteromedial intermuscular septum - b/w adductors longus and magnus and vastus medialis miscles, adductor hiatus is located inferior to this structure

97

Knee Joint

function commonly impaired with hyperextension
stability depends on: strength and actions of surrounding mm. and tt., the most important is quadriceps femurs (vastus medialis and lateralis)
ligaments connect femur and tibia
fibula has no articulation with femur
permits flex/ext, slight medial and lateral rotation (with flexed knee)
Features: hinge type synovial joint
Consists of 3 articulations- 2 femorotibial and 1 femoropatellar
joint capsule has an opening posterior and lateral to tibial condyle allowing polite us tendon to exit capsule
anteriorly, muscles and tendons replace capsule

98

Suprapatellar Bursa

may extend halfway up anterior femur
synovial membrane of capsule is continuous with synovial lining of bursa
muscle slips from vastus intermedius form articulates genu muscle, retract bursa during extension

99

Bursae around knee

Subcutaneous Prepatellar and infrapatellar - located at convex surface of joint allow skin to move freely during movement of knee
Suprapatellar - infection of this one may spread to knee cavity
Popliteus
Anserine
Gastrocnemius

100

Ligaments of the Knee
Extracapsular

patellar l.
fibular collateral ligament
tibial collateral ligament
oblique popliteal ligament
arcuate popliteal ligament

101

Ligaments of the Knee
Intracapsular

Cruciate ligaments-
Anterior cruciate ligament
Posterior Cruciate ligament
Menisci-
medial and lateral menisci
coronary ligmanet
transverse ligament of knee

102

Patellar Ligament

from apex and adjoining margins of patellar to tibial tuberosity
anterior ligament of knee joint
receives medial and laterall patellar retinaculua, helps to form the knee joint capsule and helps keep the patella alignment

103

fibular collateral ligmanet

strong and cord-like
lateral collateral ligament of the knee
taut with extension
from lateral epicondyle and femur to lateral surface of fibular head
tendon of popliteus passes deep to FCL separating ligament from meniscus
splits tendon of biceps femurs into two parts

104

Tibial Collateral Ligament

strong and flat, weaker than FCL
medial collateral ligament of the knee
taut with extension
from medial epicondyle of femur to medial surface of tibia
deep fibbers are firmly attached to medial meniscus, more often damaged

105

Oblique popliteal ligmanet

recurrent expansion of semimembranosus tendon
from medial tibial condyle passing superolaterally to lateral femoral condyle
reinforces joint capsule posteriorly

106

Arcuate popliteal ligament

from posterior aspect of fibular head passing superomedially over tendon of popliteus, spreads over posterior surface of knee joint
strengthens joint capsule posteriorlaterally

107

Cruciate Ligaments

cross each other obliquely within joint capsule, outside synovial cavity
during medial rotation of tibia on femur, wind around each other, limit MR to about 10 degrees
during LR it can go 60 degree especially when knee flexed it can go 90.
in every position 1 cruciate lig. is tense

108

Anterior Cruciate ligament

weaker b/c poor blood supply
from anterior intercondylar area
extends posteriorly superiorly and laterally
attaches to posterior part of medial side of lateral femoral condyle
prevents posterior displacement of femur on tibia
prevents anterior displacement of tibia on femur when knee flexed
resists hyperextension

109

Posterior Cruciate Ligament

stronger
from posterior intercondylar area
extends anteriorly, superiorly and medially
attaches to anterior part f lateral side of medial femoral condyle
prevents anterior displacement of femur on tibia
prevents posterior displacement of tibia on femur when knee is flexed
resists hyperextension of knee joint
main stabilizing factor of femur when weight bearing on the flexed knee (walking down hill)

110

Menisci

crescentic plates of firbrocartilage
deepen tibial plateau, act as shock absorber
thicker at external margins
unattached at interior of joint
firmly attached at ends to intercondylar area of tibia

111

Medial Meniscus

c shaped
adheres to deep surface of TCL
less mobile on tibial plateau, more prone to injury

112

Lateral Meniscus

neraly circular
smaller and more freely moveable
tendon to popliteus passes b/w it and FCL
posterior meniscofemoral ligament joins the lateral menaces to PCL and medial femoral condyle

113

Coronary Ligament

portions of joint capsule
extends b/w margins of menisci and periphery of tibial condyles

114

Transverse ligament of knee

joins anterior edges of menisci
crosses anterior intercondylar area
tethers menisci to each other

115

Popliteal Fossa

diamond shaped depression posterior to knee joint
Boundaries: superolateral-biceps femoris m
superomedial - semimembranosus and tendinosis
inferolateral - gastroc lateral head
inferomedial - gastroc medial head
posteriorly (roof) - skin of popliteal fascia
floor- medial and lateral supracondylar lines, soleal line of tibia and popliteus muscle
Contains; termination of small saphenous vein, popliteal a. and v., tibial and common fibular n., posterior cutaneous n. of thigh, lymphatics

116

Fascia of Popliteal Fossa

superficial fascia contains the small saphenous vein and 3 cuteness nerves
posterior cutaneous n of the thigh and medial and lateral sural cutaneous nerves
Deep fascia is continuous sup. with fascia lat a and inf. with crural fascia
forms protective layer covering structures passing from thigh to leg
forms a loose, but effective retinaculum for hamstring muscles
often pierced by small saphenous v.

117

Popliteal artery

continuation of femoral artery
one of four places to take a pulse
terminates by dividing into anterior and posterior tibial arteries at inferior border of politeus muscle
gives rise to medial and lateral superior and inferior genicular arteries and the middle genicular artery that all take part in genicular anastamosis

118

Genicular anastamosis

medial and lateral superior and inferior genicular arteries
middle genicular artery
descending genicular artery
descending branch of lateral femoral circumflex artery
anterior tibial recurrent artery
fibular circumflex artery
posterior tibiabl circumflex artery

119

Popliteal Vein

begins at inferior border of popliteus muscle
continuation of posterior tibial vein
receives small saphenous vein
becomes femoral vein as it traverses adductor hiatus

120

Lymphatics

superficial and deep popliteal nodes drain into deep inguinal nodes
ultimately end up in external ilac nodes

121

Tibiofibular joints

2 joints; superior tibiofibular joint and inferior tibiofibular joint (tibiofibular syndesmosis)
also held together by interosseous membrane
fibbers of all 3 run inferiorly from tibia to fibula
resists downward pull placed on fibula by 8 muscles
allows slight upward movement of fibular
movement at superior joint impossible without movement on inferior
anterior tibial vessels pass through hiatus at superior end of interosseus membrane

122

Superior Tibiofibular Joint

plane type synovial joint, permits slight upward movement during dorsiflexion
between flat facet of fibular head and similar articular facet on lateral tibial condyle
joint is crosses posteriorly by popliteal tendon
20% of time the popliteus bursa communicates with this joint capsule
Ligaments are an anterior and posterior ligaments of the fibular head

123

Inferior Tibiofibular Joint

Tibiofibular Syndesmosis
compound fibrous joint
integrity of joint is essential for stability of ankle
keeps lateral malleolus firmly against lateral surface of talus
features; b/w triangular area on medial surface of fibula with facet on end of tibia
fibrous union of tibia and fibula by, interosseous membrane, interosseous tibiofibular l., ant. tf l., post tf l.
permits slight movement to accommodate wide portion of trochlea during dorsiflexion

124

Crural Fascia

attaches to anterior and medial borders of tibia, continuous with periosteum
thick proximally and thinner distally
forms the anterior, posterior inter muscular septa dividing the leg into 4 compartments; anterior, lateral posterior deep and posterior superficial
forms retinacula that prevents bowstringing during ankle movements

125

Superior Extensor retinaculum

found anteriorly
passes from fibula to tibia proximal to malleoli

126

Inferior Extensor Retinaculum

found anteriorly
Y-shaped band
attaches laterally to calcaneus, medially to medial malleolus and inferiorly to plantar aponeurosis
great saphenous vein and superficial fibular n. pass superficial to extensor retinacula

127

Superior Fibular Retinaculum

found laterally
from lateral malleolus to calcaneus

128

Inferior Fibular Retinaculum

found laterally
from fibular trochlea to calcaneus
both cover tendons of fibularis longs and brevis
small saphenous v. and sural n. pass superficial

129

Flexor retinaculum

found medially
formed by distal part of transverse inter muscular septum
covers deep posterior compartment flexor tendons

130

Anterior Tibial Artery

from the popliteal artery
passes from posterior to anterior via gap in interosseous membrane
runs with deep fibular nerve
Forms the Anterior tibial recurrent artery that participates in genicular anastamosis
Also forms the Perforating branches which supply the lateral compartment of the leg
descends between TA and EDL, then TA and EHL
Supplies the anterior compartment of leg
Forms the Medial and Lateral melleolar branches supplying the ankle
Terminates as dorsalis pedis artery b/w malleoli

131

Anterior Tibial Vein

drains into posterior tibial vein

132

Deep Fibular Nerve

terminal branch of common fibular nerve
also known as deep peroneal nerve
Runs with anterior tibial artery
supplies anterior compartment muscles
Terminates as the lateral and medial branches of deep fibular nerve

133

Saphenous Nerve

from the femoral Nerve
runs with great saphenous vein
supplies skin of anteromedial and posteromedial leg

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Superficial Fibular Nerve

terminal branch of common fibular nerve
only nerve in lateral compartment
terminates as medial dorsal cutaneous nerve and intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve

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Lateral Sural Cutaneous Nerve

from common fibular nerve
supplies skin of upper lateral leg

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Muscles of Posterior Comparment

divided into the superficial and deep compartments by the transverse intermuscular septum
Gastrocnemeus and soleus make up the triceps surae
Insert on the calcaneal tendon (achillies tendon)
most powerful and thickest tendon in body