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Flashcards in Clinical Topics 2 Deck (59)

Heroic Medicine

predominated in the 1800s
-intestinal purging
-limb amputation
-profuse sweating


Benjamin Rush

was a fan of heroic medicine and against licensure


Primary agenda of AMA when established

-elevate educational standards
-licensure to establish control of health care



-eventualy became the practice of orthopaedics in US
-Hueseros are what bone settees are called in South America


Eclectic Medicine

-version of herbal medicine
-the shakers


The Shakers

-were strongly inclined to herbal remedies and documented and published substantial lore on the use of botanicals and other natural remedies using plants



-employs the "law of similars" which means that they use counter irritants to combat disease, if you have a fever then you sweat it out
-popular because it was more gentle than the heroic medicine alternatives


Samuel Hahnemann

the father of modern homeopathy


Magnetisme Animal

is a form of Vitalism, the belief that the body can and does heal itself and that caring for patients should be guided at facilitating these forces, rather that exterminating disease through surgery and medicines
-care should be focused on aiding the body in its quest to find a healthy state


Andrew T Still

founder of osteropathy



-the law of the artery was the basis
-a disturbed artery could cause obstructed blood flow that could lead to disease or deformity
-strong elements of vitalism b/c founder was a magnetic healer before
-osteopaths preferred to keep the blood in the body compared to heroic medicine
-differ from chiropractic techniques by tending to be more pumping and mobilization, low velocity, high amplitude and long-lever maneuvers applied in rhythmic fashion


Chiropractors differing from osteopaths

--DD Palmer was the founder
-techniques involved emphasis on high velocity, low amplitude procedures


Samuel Thompson

-the developer of the Thompsonian Movement and wrote "New Guide to Health; or Botanic Family Physician"
-was basically more or less gentle, herbal approach to purgatives and detoxifying the body
-milder form of heroic medicine


Black Laws

-was a derogatory term used by unconventional medical practitioners to describe the laws medicine tried to pass in states to restrict non-medical practitioners from practicing
-the term was a reference to laws that were in existence for the purpose of restricting African American peoples rights and freedoms in America


DD: Date and place of Birth

Port Perry, Ontario, Canada
March 6, 1845


DD: Careers prior to chiropractic

Magentic healer in 1886
before that he was a grocer, nursery owed, bee keeper, teacher


DD: Where did he practice Magnetic

Davenport, IA


How did DD's magnetic healing work

-cured inflammation in his patients
-continued to believe the detrimental effects of inflammation when he focused his attention on chiropractic


DD: First adjustment

-at age 50, on September 18, 1895 he adjusted T4 on Harvey Lillard (a janitor), who was reffered by Rev. Samuel Weed (a friend of DDs) and allegedly cured Lillards deafness


Term "Chiropractic"

-DD relied on Rev Samueal Weed to help him devise the term
-from Greek, done by hand, in April 1896


Nerve Tracing

used it in his magnetic and chiropractic endeavors


DD: Advertising

-thru the newspaper that was variously named "The educator, the chiropractic, or the magnetic"


When did DD incorporate the Palmar school of Magnetic Cure (PSMC)

July 1896


January 1897

DD offers to teach chiropractic, tuition is $500 for the three month course at PSMC


Where can the origins of Straight vs Mixers be traced to

-Solon Langworthy and his American School of Chiropractic and Nature Cure in Cedat Rapids, IA
-Incorporated stretching and herbs into his curriculum


Who did DD leave the school to

In 1902 he left the Palmar School of Chiropractic in Bartlett Joshua's hands when he moved to Pasadena CA
-BJ was 20 years old at the time


When did DD return to co-run the school



Story of his return

In late 1905 he was arrested and convicted in 1906 and sentenced to 105 days in jail or a $350 fine, he chose jail and spent 23 days before paying the fine
-While in jail BJ advertised DD as "Martyr to his Science"
-He sold the school to BJ and moved to Oklahoma where he started another school


The Chiropractors Adjustor

and book authored by DD in 1910 that is approximately 1000 pages of treatise


Green Books

book authored by BJ in 1908


DD death

-at a parade in Davenport in 1913 he was allegedly struck by a vehicle driven by BJ
-he would die later that year from Typhoid fever
-unrelated to the injury he sustained


DD real name

Daniel David


BJ: Place and date of birth

September 14, 1882
What Cheer, IA


When did he purchase school from DD

purchase Palmar School from Old Dad Chiro in 1906


BJ: Neurocalameter

was invented in 1924 by BJ


HIO (Hole In One) Technique

treating only C1 for all conditions
BJ promoted and made it famous


AUDIO Principle (Above-Down-Inside-Out)

-this was a throwback to the magnetic healing concepts that all energy came from the brain out and from inside the person to the outside
-more a vitalistic metaphor than anything


Safety Pin Theory

-also popularized by BJ
-the idea that the flow of innate to and from central nervous system is on a circuit like a safety pin
-closed and continuous to and from
-if the safety pin is opened, the circuit is broken and innate cannot flow
-this causes dis-ease which leads to dysfunction which leads to disease



-used traction and manipulation
-used it to relocate dissociated shoulders


Wharston Hood

would eventually suggest that the cracking sounds during manipulation were lysing of adhesions


Distinguishing various professions' version of manipulation

explanation focused on what was being done as the distinguishing factor
Hippocrates - balancing of humours
PT's - thought it was addressing adhesions
Andrew Still - felt is was facilitating blood flow
Bone setters and Orthopedics - claimed joints and bones
Palmer- felt it was the nerves


BJ assertion of manipulation

-presence of "subtle" life force every within the organism termed "Innate Intelligence" flowed via nerves to every cell in the body
-subluxations of the spine caused impingement of flow and Innate Intelligence, and adjustments removed this interference, allowing proper flow of innate to the cells of the body


The Law of the Nerve



The Law of the Artery



The first 4 school were? (with city)

-Palmar School, Davenport, IA
-American School, Cedar Rapids, IA
Marsh School, Portland, OR
-National College, Chicago, IL


Change in school number in 1920's

from 30 to 80 schools in this time due to the veterans benefits accrued in WW1


The National Chiropractic Association (NCA)

started a Committee on Education in 1935 with CO Watkins as its inaugural chair


Who succeeded CO Waitkings as chair

-John Nugent and he made real progesss toward raising standards in education and pre-chiropractic educational requirements
-he would be called "The Anti-Christ of Chiropractic" by BJ



- born in 1967
-achieved recognition with the US Dapartment of Education in 1979


Straight Chiropractic Academic Standards Association (SCASA)

-granted candidate status with USEO in 1988
-SCASA status would be revoked by the USOE in 1992


Early prosecution days of Chrio

-by 1931, 15000 prosecutions of chiropractors for various charges relating to practicing medicine without a license


DD Palmer arrested

in 1905 and convicted in 1906


Shegataro Morikubo

arrested for practicing medicine, surgery, and osteopathy in Wisconsin, acquitted on all charges


Solution to prosecutions

chiropractic sought licensure to alleviate pressures of prosecution, it would take approximately 60 years to achieve licensure in all 50 states and Washington DC


First to establish licensure

1913: Kansas and North Dakota


Last to establish licensure

1966: Massachusetts
1973: Mississippi
1974: Louisiana


Basic Science Statutes

-medicine pursued this to prevent practitioners from being eligible to get licenses
-24 states eventually has such laws, all were repealed by 1979 often because the strategy backfired and harmed medicines candidates worse than DC's


National Board of Chiropractic Examiners

established in 1962-63 to create exams that were fair and appropriate for chiropractors


Wilkes et al vs AMA et al

For the plaintiffs: Chester A Will DC, Walter Wardell PhD, Michael D Pedigo DC, Kenneth Luedtke DC, and Jerome McAndrews DC
-Judge Susan Getzendanner ruled against the defendant and issued a permanent injunction against them from preventing or discouraging MD's from affiliating or work with DC's