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31

What are fontanelles and why are they important?

Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal bones
Allow for rapid stretching and deformation of developing skull

32

What are foremen and notches?

Holes in bone where blood vessels and nerves enter, incomplete holes called notches
Supraorbital (frontal), infraorbital (maxilla), mental (mandible)

33

What bones make the hard palate?

Maxilla - palatine process
Palatine - horizontal plate

34

What 7 bones make the orbital cavity?

Many Friendly Zebras Enjoy Lazy Summer Picnics

1. Frontal
2. Maxilla
3. Zygomatic
4. Lacrimal
5. Ethmoid
6. Sphenoid
7. Palatine

35

What 7 bones make the nasal cavity?

1. Nasal
2. Frontal
3. Ethmoid
4. Sphenoid
5. Maxilla
6. Lacrimal
7. Vomer

36

What 14 bones make the facial bones?

Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh

1. Zygomatics
2. Maxillas
3. Nasals
4. Lacrimals
5. Vomer
6. Palatines
7. Inferior conchae
8. Mandible

37

What are the 8 bones of the neurocranium?

PEST OF 6

1. Frontal
2. Parietal (paired)
3. Temporal (paired)
4. Occipital
5. Sphenoid
6. Ethmoid

38

What 7 bones form the base of the skull?

1. Maxilla
2. Palatine
3. Zygomatic
4. Temporal
5. Vomer
6. Temporal
7. Sphenoid

39

What is the foramen magnum?

Large forum that connects brain to spinal cord

40

What are nuchal lines?

Protuberances in occipital bone due to muscle attachment

41

What bones make up the anterior cranial fossa?

1. Frontal
2. Ethmoid
3. Sphenoid

42

What is CSF rhinorrhoea?

Drainage of CSF though the nose

43

What 2 bones make up the middle crania fossa?

Sphenoid - greater wing
Temporal

44

What are optic chiasma?

Optical nerves cross over, cause a depression

45

What is CSF otorrhea?

CSF leaks out ear caused by blow to internal acoustic meatus

46

What 2 bones make the posterior crania fossa?

Parietal bone
Occipital

47

What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?

1. Frontal
2. Ethmoidal air cells
3. Sphenoid
4. Maxillary

48

What 6 bones make the nasal cavity?

1. Sphenoid
2. Palatine
3. Maxillary
4. Nasal
5. Inferior nasal concha
6. Ethmoid

49

What are the differences between fetal skull and adult skull?

More bones
Mandible, frontal infused
At birth, connected by fontanelles
Little space between oral cavity and orbital
Mandible is flat
No processes or prominences
Larger cranial structure, smaller facial

50

What are the 4 fontanelles?

Anterio
Posterior
Mastoid
Sphenoid

51

What are the 4 functions of the vertebral column?

Protect spinal cords
Permit movement
Site of muscle attachment
Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs

52

What are the 26 vertebrae?

Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacrum and coccyx - 5 (fused so count as 1)

53

What are the 2 naturally occurring curves in the vertebral column?

Lordotic - lumbar region
Kyphotic - upper thoracic, lower cervical

54

Describe lumbar lordosis and the symptoms

Exaggeration of lumbar curve
Associated w/ weakened abdominal muscles

Lower back pain due to weight being focused in single region
Prevalent in gymnasts, swimmers

55

Describe thoracic kyphosis

Exaggeration of thoracic curve
Occurs more frequently than lordosis
Vertebra becomes wedge shaped

Causes hunch back, pain due to muscles being in constant contraction, weight is not transmitted evenly

56

What is scoliosis and its symptoms?

Lateral deviation of spinal column
C or S shaped
Involved thoracic and/or lumbar

Repeated unilateral loading
Associated w disease, leg length abnormalities, muscular imbalances

57

What are the functions of vertebral disks?

Shock absorbers
Bear and distribute motion in vertebral segment
Withstand compression from torsional and bending loads

58

What happens to the intervertebral disks with age?

Integrity dec., lose ability to retain water, dry out thus ability to distribute load across disk changes

59

Describe a herniated intervertebral disk

NP provides out from between vertebrae
Nerves impinged by budging lead to numbness and/or pain

60

What are the 6 ligaments of the vertebral column?

Flavour: connects adjacent vertebral arches
Supraspinous and interspinous: connect spinous processes
Ant. Longitudinal: connect to the body, hold in place
Post. Longitudinal: connect to body, prevent excessive movement
Short: connect vertebra to those above, below