Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
What are fontanelles and why are they important?
Unossified remnants of fibrous membranes between fetal bones
Allow for rapid stretching and deformation of developing skull
What are foremen and notches?
Holes in bone where blood vessels and nerves enter, incomplete holes called notches
Supraorbital (frontal), infraorbital (maxilla), mental (mandible)
What bones make the hard palate?
Maxilla - palatine process
Palatine - horizontal plate
What 7 bones make the orbital cavity?
Many Friendly Zebras Enjoy Lazy Summer Picnics
What 7 bones make the nasal cavity?
What 14 bones make the facial bones?
Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh
7. Inferior conchae
What are the 8 bones of the neurocranium?
PEST OF 6
2. Parietal (paired)
3. Temporal (paired)
What 7 bones form the base of the skull?
What is the foramen magnum?
Large forum that connects brain to spinal cord
What are nuchal lines?
Protuberances in occipital bone due to muscle attachment
What bones make up the anterior cranial fossa?
What is CSF rhinorrhoea?
Drainage of CSF though the nose
What 2 bones make up the middle crania fossa?
Sphenoid - greater wing
What are optic chiasma?
Optical nerves cross over, cause a depression
What is CSF otorrhea?
CSF leaks out ear caused by blow to internal acoustic meatus
What 2 bones make the posterior crania fossa?
What are the 4 paranasal sinuses?
2. Ethmoidal air cells
What 6 bones make the nasal cavity?
5. Inferior nasal concha
What are the differences between fetal skull and adult skull?
Mandible, frontal infused
At birth, connected by fontanelles
Little space between oral cavity and orbital
Mandible is flat
No processes or prominences
Larger cranial structure, smaller facial
What are the 4 fontanelles?
What are the 4 functions of the vertebral column?
Protect spinal cords
Site of muscle attachment
Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs
What are the 26 vertebrae?
Cervical - 7
Thoracic - 12
Lumbar - 5
Sacrum and coccyx - 5 (fused so count as 1)
What are the 2 naturally occurring curves in the vertebral column?
Lordotic - lumbar region
Kyphotic - upper thoracic, lower cervical
Describe lumbar lordosis and the symptoms
Exaggeration of lumbar curve
Associated w/ weakened abdominal muscles
Lower back pain due to weight being focused in single region
Prevalent in gymnasts, swimmers
Describe thoracic kyphosis
Exaggeration of thoracic curve
Occurs more frequently than lordosis
Vertebra becomes wedge shaped
Causes hunch back, pain due to muscles being in constant contraction, weight is not transmitted evenly
What is scoliosis and its symptoms?
Lateral deviation of spinal column
C or S shaped
Involved thoracic and/or lumbar
Repeated unilateral loading
Associated w disease, leg length abnormalities, muscular imbalances
What are the functions of vertebral disks?
Bear and distribute motion in vertebral segment
Withstand compression from torsional and bending loads
What happens to the intervertebral disks with age?
Integrity dec., lose ability to retain water, dry out thus ability to distribute load across disk changes
Describe a herniated intervertebral disk
NP provides out from between vertebrae
Nerves impinged by budging lead to numbness and/or pain