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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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61

Describe the C1 vertebra

Atlas
Has articulating processes
No body or spinous process
Ant and post. arches, 2 lateral masses
Sup. surfaces of lateral masses articulate with occipital condyles

62

Describe the axis

2nd cervical vertebra
Has dens that projects sup. into ant. arch of atlas
Allows pivot for rotation of atlas

63

What are the 2 movements involved in the vertebral column?

Atlanta-Occipital - nodding (yes)
Atlantoaxial - rotation (no)

64

What is whiplash and how does it happen?

Rapid flexion/extension injury in cervical region
Strains post. ligaments
Can dislocate post. apophyseal joints
C7 likely site for fracture

65

Describe the structure of intervertebral disks

Nucleus pulposus- gel-like mass in centre, allows disk to expand
Annulus fibrosus - layers of fibrocartilaginous material

66

What is the TMJ?

Bilateral synovial joint formed from articulation of mandible and temporal bones

67

What are the 4 suprahyoid muscles?

Geniohyoid
Mylohyoid
Digastric
Stylohyoid

68

What is the function of the suprahyoid muscles?

Elevate or retract hyoid during swallowing

69

Describe the mandibular condyle

Has articulating surface/head covered with hyaline cartilage, narrows down to neck
Lateral and medial poles
Pterygoid fovea - depression left by muscles of mastication

Important growth site - grows forward and down
Articulates in mandibular fossa of temporal bone

70

What are the main features of the mandible?

Head/condyle process
Coronoid process
Mandibular notch
Ramus
Angle
Body

71

Describe where the mandibular fossa are and the articular surface

R and L temporal bones
Articular surface covered by dense fibrous articular tissue

72

What are the lateral, medial, ant. and post. boundaries of the mandibular fossa?

Lateral: zygomatic process of temporal bone
Medial: spine of sphenoid bone
Ant: articular eminence
Post: squamotympanic and petrotympanic fissures

73

What is the function of the joint capsule of the TMJ?

Encloses joint like a sleeve, preventing it from slipping out of fossa

74

Describe the location and composition of the joint capsule

Runs post. from temporal bone to mandible condyle infer.
Made of fibrous tissue

75

What are the superior attachments of the joint capsule?

Area surrounding mandibular fossa and articular eminence
Extends ant. to ant. slope of articular eminence, post. to squamotympanic fissur

76

What is the attachment site of the joint capsule to the periphery condyle neck and below the medial and lateral poles of condylar neck?

Posterior attachment

77

Describe the temporomandibular ligament

Lateral thickening of the capsule strengthening the capsule laterally
Runs from zygomatic process of temporal bone to lateral surface of mandibular neck

78

What is the articulating dick?

Dense fibrous tissue lying inside joint capsule dividing joint cavity into sup. and infer. compartments allowing for separate movement in each compartment

79

Describe the location and anatomy of the articulating disk

Prominent post. thickening, less prominent ant. thickening
Lies between condyle and mandibular fossa

80

What are the 2 accessory ligaments of the temporomandibular joint?

Stylomandibular: styloid process to angle of mandible
Sphenomandibular: spine of sphenoid to lingula

81

What are the 5 movements of the TMJ?

Depression
Elevation
Retraction
Protrusion
Lateral chewing

82

What nerve supplies the TMJ?

Sensory division of auriculotemporal nerve

83

What 2 arteries supply the TMJ?

Superficial temporal artery
Small contribution from maxillary artery - supplies the ant. aspect of TMJ

84

How is TMJ dysfunction usually detected?

Pain and clicking/popping sound

85

What is arthritis?

Joint inflammation resulting in breakdown of articular cartilage

86

How can arthritis be caused?

Age - primary degenerative
Abnormal function - 2ndary degenerative

87

What can cause 2ndary arthritis?

Bruxism - grinding teeth, stress on TMJ
Malocclusion - X-bite; mandibular teeth enclose maxillary teeth

88

Describe internal disk derangement

Articulating disk doesn't move in sync with condyle
Fibres pull disk through joint causing popping sound

89

Describe dislocation of the TMJ

Head of condyle comes out of mandibular fossa
Can be caused by excessive pressure on mandible such as extraction, big yawn or by trauma

90

When and where do the branchial arches form?

Week 4
Development of frontal prominence forms stomodeum (primitive oral cavity) below which first branchial arch (mandibular arch) forms