Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
Describe the post head LNs
Occipital: over occipital bone at apex of occipital protuberance
Afferent vessels: collect at back of scalp
Mastoid: over lateral surface of mastoid process
Afferent: scalp above auricle, post. med. auricle, post. wall of EAM
Describe the ant. head LN
Parotid: on/in parotid gland
Afferent: scalp above parotid, lat. surface of auricle, ant. wall of EAM, lat. eyelids, middle ear
Buccal: over buccinator muscle, close to facial vein
Afferent: ant. scalp and forehead, ant. part of nose
Efferent: submandibular LN
What 2 LNs are found beneath the mandible?
Submandibular: superficial to submandibular salivary gland
Afferent: buccal, upper lip, lat. lower lip, frontal, max. and ethmoidal air sinuses, upper and lower teeth, gingival (except ant.), floor of mouth
Afferent: tip of tongue, lower incisors and associated gums, central lower lip
Efferent: submandibular LN
Describe the ant. cervical and superficial cervical LNs
Along superficial jugular veins
Ant: along course of ant. jugular veins
Afferent: ant. neck
Afferent: angle of mandible, lobule of auricle
What is the DCLN?
Deep cervical lymph node
Chain of LNs along lateral aspect of IJV
Runs from base of skull to root of neck in carotid sheath
Afferent: all lymphatic structures
Efferent: jugular lymph trunk -> lymphatic ducts -> sup. vena cava
What are the 3 lobes of the cerebrum?
What are the functions of the cerebrum?
Sensory and motor
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
Smooth, coordinated movements
Posture and balance
What are the 3 segments of the brain stem?
What is the function of the medulla?
Relays sensory and motor info
Regulates heartbeat, breathing, vessel dilation
What is the function of the pons?
What are the 12 cranial nerves?
Name which nerves are sensory, motor or both
1. Olfactory - Sensory
2. Optic - Sensory
3. Oculomotor - Motor
4. Trochlear - Motor
5. Trigeminal - Both
6. Abducens - Motor
7. Facial - Both
8. Vestibulocochleae - Sensory
9. Glossopharyngeal - Both
10. Vagus - Both
11. Accessory - Motor
12. Hypoglossal - Motor
Describe the olfactory nerve
Travels up through cribriform plate of ethmoid bone and synapses in olfactory bulb
Shortest course of all nerves
Terminates in sensory receptors responsible for smell
What is anosmia, how can it arise and what are clinical tests for it?
Partial/whole loss of smell
Basal skull fracture - cribriform plate of ethmoid
Chronic nasal inflammation - medication can damage too
Tumour of olfactory region
Ask to identify common smells
Describe the optic nerve
Originates in diencephalon, passes through skull at optic foreman in sphenoid bone, terminates in retina
What are optic chiasma?
Crossing over of optic nerve fibres
Fibres from med. half cross midline, enter optic tract in opp. side
Fibres from lat. half pass post. in optic tract of same side
Where do nerves in the optic tract synapse?
Synapse in visual area of thalamus
Run post. terminate in visual cortex
What do rod and cone cells sense?
Rod: dim light, high signal amplification
Describe the oculomotor nerve
From ant. of midbrain, runs through cavernous sinus, enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure
What muscles does the oculomotor nerve supply?
Muscles controlling eye movement:
Ciliary ganglion: control ciliary muscle which controls size of lens
Med. and sup. rectus
Levator palpebrae superioris - eyelid
What is the effect of damage to the oculomotor nerve and can this be tested?
Effects: drooping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision
Test: differences in pupil size, pupillary response to light, eye tracking (rectus muscle function)
Describe the trochlear
From post. midbrain, enters cavernous sinus enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure
What muscle does the trochlear supply?
Sup. oblique muscle function of eye movement
What is the effect of damage to the trochlear?
Double vision, tilt head towards side effected
Test: ability to rotate eye inferolaterally (inf. and lat.)
Describe the trigeminal nerve
From ant. pons
Sensory root gives off branches V1 (ophthalmic sensory), V2 (maxillary sensory), V3 (mandible sensomotor)
What is the function of the trigeminal?
Sensory: tactile, proprioception, nociceptive afference of face and mouth
Motor: muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, ant. belly of digastric
Describe the V1 nerve
Ophthalmic - sensory
Leaves skull through sup. orbital fissure to enter orbital cavity
What are the 3 branches of the ophthalmic nerve?
Forever Losing Notes
1. Frontal: supratrochlear, supraorbital
2. Lacrimal - runs ant., to lacrimal gland
3. Nasociliary - angle of nose