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Flashcards in H&N Deck (409)
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181

Describe the post head LNs

Occipital: over occipital bone at apex of occipital protuberance
Afferent vessels: collect at back of scalp
Efferent: DCLN

Mastoid: over lateral surface of mastoid process
Afferent: scalp above auricle, post. med. auricle, post. wall of EAM
Efferent: DCLN

182

Describe the ant. head LN

Parotid: on/in parotid gland
Afferent: scalp above parotid, lat. surface of auricle, ant. wall of EAM, lat. eyelids, middle ear
Efferent: DCLN

Buccal: over buccinator muscle, close to facial vein
Afferent: ant. scalp and forehead, ant. part of nose
Efferent: submandibular LN

183

What 2 LNs are found beneath the mandible?

Submandibular: superficial to submandibular salivary gland
Afferent: buccal, upper lip, lat. lower lip, frontal, max. and ethmoidal air sinuses, upper and lower teeth, gingival (except ant.), floor of mouth
Efferent: unknown

Submental
Afferent: tip of tongue, lower incisors and associated gums, central lower lip
Efferent: submandibular LN

184

Describe the ant. cervical and superficial cervical LNs

Along superficial jugular veins

Ant: along course of ant. jugular veins
Afferent: ant. neck
Efferent: DCLN

Superficial
Afferent: angle of mandible, lobule of auricle
Efferent: DCLN

185

What is the DCLN?

Deep cervical lymph node

Chain of LNs along lateral aspect of IJV
Runs from base of skull to root of neck in carotid sheath

Afferent: all lymphatic structures
Efferent: jugular lymph trunk -> lymphatic ducts -> sup. vena cava

186

What are the 3 lobes of the cerebrum?

Frontal
Parietal
Occipital

187

What are the functions of the cerebrum?

Sensory and motor
Emotion
Intellectual processes
Auditory
Visual
Speech

188

What are the functions of the cerebellum?

Smooth, coordinated movements
Posture and balance

189

What are the 3 segments of the brain stem?

Midbrain
Pons
Medulla oblongata

190

What is the function of the medulla?

Relays sensory and motor info
Regulates heartbeat, breathing, vessel dilation

191

What is the function of the pons?

Control breathing

192

What are the 12 cranial nerves?

1. Olfactory
2. Optic
3. Oculomotor
4. Trochlear
5. Trigeminal
6. Abducens
7. Facial
8. Vestibulocochlear
9. Glossopharyngeal
10. Vagus
11. Accessory
12. Hypoglossal

193

Name which nerves are sensory, motor or both

1. Olfactory - Sensory
2. Optic - Sensory
3. Oculomotor - Motor
4. Trochlear - Motor
5. Trigeminal - Both
6. Abducens - Motor
7. Facial - Both
8. Vestibulocochleae - Sensory
9. Glossopharyngeal - Both
10. Vagus - Both
11. Accessory - Motor
12. Hypoglossal - Motor

194

Describe the olfactory nerve

Travels up through cribriform plate of ethmoid bone and synapses in olfactory bulb
Shortest course of all nerves
Terminates in sensory receptors responsible for smell

195

What is anosmia, how can it arise and what are clinical tests for it?

Partial/whole loss of smell

Basal skull fracture - cribriform plate of ethmoid
Chronic nasal inflammation - medication can damage too
Tumour of olfactory region

Ask to identify common smells

196

Describe the optic nerve

Originates in diencephalon, passes through skull at optic foreman in sphenoid bone, terminates in retina

197

What are optic chiasma?

Crossing over of optic nerve fibres

Fibres from med. half cross midline, enter optic tract in opp. side
Fibres from lat. half pass post. in optic tract of same side

198

Where do nerves in the optic tract synapse?

Synapse in visual area of thalamus
Run post. terminate in visual cortex

199

What do rod and cone cells sense?

Rod: dim light, high signal amplification
Cone: colour

200

Describe the oculomotor nerve

From ant. of midbrain, runs through cavernous sinus, enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure

201

What muscles does the oculomotor nerve supply?

Muscles controlling eye movement:
Ciliary ganglion: control ciliary muscle which controls size of lens
Med. and sup. rectus
Levator palpebrae superioris - eyelid

202

What is the effect of damage to the oculomotor nerve and can this be tested?

Effects: drooping eyelid, dilated pupil, double vision
Test: differences in pupil size, pupillary response to light, eye tracking (rectus muscle function)

203

Describe the trochlear

From post. midbrain, enters cavernous sinus enters orbit through sup. orbital fissure

204

What muscle does the trochlear supply?

Sup. oblique muscle function of eye movement

205

What is the effect of damage to the trochlear?

Double vision, tilt head towards side effected

Test: ability to rotate eye inferolaterally (inf. and lat.)

206

Describe the trigeminal nerve

Larger CN
From ant. pons
Sensory root gives off branches V1 (ophthalmic sensory), V2 (maxillary sensory), V3 (mandible sensomotor)

207

What is the function of the trigeminal?

Sensory: tactile, proprioception, nociceptive afference of face and mouth
Motor: muscles of mastication, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, mylohyoid, ant. belly of digastric

208

Describe the V1 nerve

Ophthalmic - sensory

Leaves skull through sup. orbital fissure to enter orbital cavity

209

What are the 3 branches of the ophthalmic nerve?

Forever Losing Notes

1. Frontal: supratrochlear, supraorbital
2. Lacrimal - runs ant., to lacrimal gland
3. Nasociliary - angle of nose

210

Describe the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve

Leave through foramen rotundum