Flashcards in Haematopathology: Anaemia & Leukaemia Deck (22):
What is an RBCs average lifespan?
How long does it take for an RBC to mature in the bone marrow?
List the stages of RBC production using the 'colony forming unit' model.
Stem cells --> CFU-GEMM --> CFU-Erythroid committed --> cluster around macrophages = production of Hb (stimulated by erythropoietin from kidney) --> nucleus extruded
There are two types of anaemia - what are they?
What is the term used to describe hereditary conditions which result in faulty Hb production
What does pyruvate kinase deficiency commonly lead to and what effect does it have on RBCs?
Anaemia - effects survival of RBCs
What shape are the RBCs in cases of spherocytosis?
Name some causes of acquired anaemia.
Haemolysis, renal failure, hookworm, marrow infiltration, iron deficiency
List a few ways that anaemia can arise due to iron deficiency.
Poor intake in diet, excessive loss (through bowel/bladder), menstrual loss & poor absorption (coeliac disease)
Name the three essential substances you must remember for this topic.
FOLATE (folic acid)
How does hookworm function in the body and how can it lead to anaemia?
Locks its jaws onto blood vessels and feeds off blood
Briefly describe how haemolysis works.
Autoimmune, therefore antibodies are produced which bind to antigens present on the RBC membrane, destroying part of the membrane
What is aplastic anaemia and how is it brought about?
Deficiency of all types of blood cell, not just RBCs, caused by bone marrow development failure
Name some examples of marrow infiltration.
How can renal failure lead to anaemia?
Decreased production & release of erythropoietin --> fewer RBCs manufactured
What is chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)?
A type of cancer that affects WBCs - namely its affect on bone marrow production of WBCs and their precursors, myeloid cells
What are the classic tell tale signs you would look for when diagnosing CML?
High WBC count
High platelet count
Philadelphia Chromosome presence
Briefly describe how imatinib acts to inhibit tyrosine kinases and thus tumour cell proliferation.
Targets tyrosine kinases by inhibiting their action - binds to them on philedelphia chromosome - therefore they can't transmit signals to other cells to grow and proliferate, inhibiting tumour cell proliferation and the development of cancer. Competitively binds to bcr-abl binding site to inhibit the protein
What type of drugs are used as an effective way to target and combat chronic myeloid leukaemia?
In what type of people is acute myeloid leukaemia more common in?
What are some of the problems encountered when undergoing chemotherapy?