Health psychology, behaviour change and smoking cessation Flashcards Preview

Community and Public Health (3a) > Health psychology, behaviour change and smoking cessation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Health psychology, behaviour change and smoking cessation Deck (20):
1

What are the 3 main categories of health behaviours?

Behaviours related to health:
- Health behaviour
- Illness behaviour
- Sick role behaviour

2

What is health psychology?

Emphasises the role of psychological factors in the cause, progression + consequences of health + illness

Aims to promote healthy behaviours + prevent illness

3

What are the aims of health psychology?

Aims to promote healthy behaviours + prevent illness

4

What is health behaviour? Give an example

A behaviour aimed to PREVENT DISEASE (E.g. eating healthy)

5

What is illness behaviour? Give an example

A behaviour aimed to SEEK REMEDY (e.g. go to the doctor)

6

What is sick role behaviour? Give an example

Any activity aimed at getting well (e.g. taking prescribed medications, resting)

7

Give 4 examples of health damaging/impairing behaviours

- alcohol abuse
- substance abuse
- smoking
- risky sexual behaviour
- sun exposure
- driving without a seatbelt

8

Give some examples of health promoting behaviours

- exercise
- eating healthy
- attending health checks
- medication compliance
- vaccinations

9

What proportion of cancers can be prevented by addressing modifiable RFs/lifestyle?

1/3

10

What is the leading cause of death (England + Wales 2013)

Cancer

11

What 2 types of intervention can be done to improve health? Explain them. Give two examples

(EXAM Q)

Population level (health promotion) - via PHE --> process of enabling people to exert control over the determinants of health, thereby improving health. e.g. change 4 life

Individual level (patient centred approach) - care that is responsive to need. e.g. smoking cessation clinics

12

Give some examples of health promotion campaigns

Change 4 Life + "5 a day"
Stoptober

13

Exam Q: Explain the difference between public health interventions delivered at the population (ecological) and individual levels, using one example for each to illustrate your answer.

Health interventions at population level are aimed at health promotion. It involves enabling people to exert control over the determinants of health, thereby improving health. It is done by public health england. E.g. Change 4 life campaign (or Stoptober)

Individual level interventions is based upon a pt centred approach. it is care responsive to individual needs. E.g., smoking cessation clinics?

14

Give an example of how an primary care intervention can effect individual, community and population levels

Primary care intervention aimed at reducing alcohol consumption

Individual level: reduced domestic violence, reduced alcohol consumption, improved individual health outcomes

local level: reduced local alcohol sales, reduced alcohol related a/e visits

population level: reduced crime, reduced demographic patterns of liver cirrhosis, reduced national alcohol sales

15

Why might knowledge of risk factors (e.g. smoking causing lung cancer) not influence a patients behaviours?

Unrealistic optimism - individuals have inaccurate perceptions of risk and perceptbility (so continue to take health damaging behaviours) --> 4 reasons influencing perceptions of risk:
1. Lack of personal experience with problem
2. belief that preventable by personal action
3. belief that if not happened by now, its not likely to
4. belief that problem is infrequent

other reasons: health beliefs, situational rationality, culture variability, stress, age, socioeconomic factors

16

What influences perceptions of risk?

1. Lack of personal experience with problem
2. belief that preventable by personal action
3. belief that if not happened by now, its not likely to
4. belief that problem is infrequent

17

What can patients perception of risk impact on?

Medication adherence, keeping appointments....

18

How might you promote behaviour change as a dr?

Understanding people's perception of risk

Health information --> informing pt's of their risks + respecting their autonomy

19

What are the NICE guidance on behaviour change?

1. planning interventions
2. assessing social context
3. education + training
4. individual level interventions
5. community level interventions
6. population "
7. evaluating effectiveness
8. assessing cost-effectiveness

20

Why is behaviour change important?

Evidence that changing pt's health behaviour can have an impact on some of the largest causes of morbidity + mortality

It is difficult to alter genetic predisposition + socioeconomic circumstances (determinants of health)