Flashcards in Hematology #1 - Unit 3 Deck (33):
What role does bone marrow play in the hematological system?
Destruction/Production of blood
What do the lymph, the liver, and spleen do for blood?
What is bilirubin?
It's the yellow breakdown of normal heme catabolism - excess goes into the digestive system and makes our poop brown. If you don't have it, your poop is white.
Bone Marrow makes blood stem cells. Are they all different?
No, they are not all different - blood stem cells are all the same - they are undifferentiated. However, they differentiate once they are "told" what to do.
What do Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) do?
02 and C02 Transport
What do White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) do?
Immunity and Inflammation
What do platelets (thrombocytes) do?
Form plugs and clotting cascade
We produce the same amount of stem cells a cell. So if we produce more RBC's, the others go down. T/F?
Pancytopenia - def
low level of RBC's, WBC's, platelets (bone cancer?)
What is a reticulocyte?
An immature red blood cell that can carry some heme and O2.
Without Hgb, are red blood cells's worthless?
How long does it take an RBC to develop?
about 11-12 days. It spends about 1- days forming to the reticulocyte, then a day or 2 to become an RBC
Is iron required for tissue oxygenation?
Hemoglobin - what is it made up of?
4 polypeptide chains - 2 alpha and 2 beta.
1 Hbg has __ parts.
Iron - it is where O2 binds. T/F?
Every Hgb can carry 4 oxygen. T/F?
Any RBC issue that reduces tissue oxygenation = what?
With anemia, what is it important to understand?
The underlying condition.
What might cause anemia?
Decreased production or loss of RBC (bleeding, b12 or folic acid deficiency), Increased Destruction of RBC (hemolysis, which is cell bursting), Impaired RBC function (sickle cell), too big, too small, or decreased HGB (Iron Deficiency)
Sickle Cell Anemia - not a problem with the hemoglobin, it's a problem with the...
Sickle Cell Crisis- caused by anything that decreases...
oxygen. In this crisis, it's when it's bad.
Sickle Cell Care - always remember to keep the patient's room temp HIGH - it helps prevent crisis. T/F?
What is erythropoietin?
Growth factor for RBC - goes from there being decreased blood oxygen, which the kidney's pick up and release erythropoietin, then to the bone marrow it goes!
Signs and Symptoms of Anemia -
Paleness, fatigue, increasedHR, BP, RR, cold body, possible acidosis at advanced stage
For B12/Folic Acid Anemia, they might have numbness or tingling.
what are treatment options for anemia?
Blood transfusion, iron, etc - depends on the type!
CBC - What is the RBC count?
How many RBC's in there. Normal is 4.7-6.1 for males, 4.2-5.4 for females
CBC - What is the reticulocyte count?
Number of immature RBC's - normal value is 0.5%-2% of RBC's
CBC - what is the hemoglobin level?
The total amount of Hgb in the blood
Male = 14-16
Female = 12-16
Lower hemoglobin level = ___
Higher hemoglobin = ___
Lower = smaller.
Higher = bigger.
CBC - What is the MCV?
The size of a single RBC - usually 80-95 fL
CBC - What is MCHC?
The percentage of hgb in an rbc. usually 32-36