Flashcards in Meningitis - Unit 3 Deck (17):
Meningitis - def
inflammation of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Viral Meningitis - usually...
self-limiting and the patient has a complete recovery.
Bacterial Meningitis - potentially life threatening. T/F?
Meningitis - is it contagious?
Viral - caused by...
an enterovirus, herpes virus, etc.
What are signs and symptoms?
Headache (severe), vomiting, fever, Nuchal rigidity (meningisumus - stiff neck), positive Kernig's and Brudzinski, some neuro problems.
Kernig's and Brudzinksi's
Kernig - when you flex a patient's hip 90 degrees and extend patient's knee, it causes pain...
Brudzinski's - flexing neck and it caused hip flexion - because of spinal pain.
How do we diagnose meningitis?
CSF analysis (Lumbar Tap!), CT scan, blood cultures, etc.
Should a patient with possible meningitis be put on isolation right away?
Not until we find out bacteria.
CSF - what should it look like?
If it's got excess sugar and protein...?
Should be clear - if it's cloudy, etc...that's bad
Excess sugar and protein is bad.
Drug Therapy -
Bacteria (Broad-spectrum antibiotic, like Acylclovir - fungus type), Anticonvulsants, Steroids (but they can decrease effectiveness of antibiotics)
Encephalitis - def
Inflammation of the brain tissue surrounding meninges
What causes encephalitis?
Caused by viral agents, bacteria, fungi, parasites - happens a lot in third-world countries.
Encephalitis - degenerates what?
Neurons of the cortex.
What can happen with encephalitis?
Hemorrhage, edema, necrosis, small lacunae in cerebral hemispheres (little hemorrhages)
What are some interventions for encephalitis?
Recognize and treat signs of cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and necrosis of brain tissue, maintain airway, assess vital signs, continous care - also may give Acyclovir and Zovirax (herpes in the brain)
Remove standing water, insects, etc.