Flashcards in Musculoskeltal - Okay, Actually Part 2! - Unit 2 Deck (46):
What is gangrene?
Infection of the tissue.
What is osteosarcoma?
Cancer of the bone.
What's an allograft?
Graft from another human.
1.8 Million american have an amputation each year. T/F?
<10 percent of amputations are upper extremity. T/F?
50,000 lower limb amputations yearly. T/F?
Amputations aren't really caused by DM or PVD - T/F?
FALSE - almost 80% of amputations are caused by these diseases!
With a great toe amputation, what happens?
The toe is removed, it's less painful, but you have to watch for balance and gait problems.
Mid-foot amputations - reduced pain? Weight bearing?
Yes, along with weight bearing without prosthesis.
The more there is to take off, the more energy to move it. T/F?
What is BKA? AKA?
BKA = Below knee amputation.
AKA = Above knee amputation.
The higher the amputation, the more energy required for mobility. T/F?
What are some standard post-amputation considerations?
Pain management, infection (wound, lung), DVT/PE, pressure ulcer.
In what time-frame would we like the wound to be healed in?
What are some parts of care for the stump?
Closure, drains, dressings and stockings, compression and shaping.
Wrapping a stump - what should happen?
Patient should be flat/straight, it should be done in a figure 8 - not circular, no wrinkles, tighter at the bottom, overlap 1/4", tension - tight but not too tight!
Should we always keep an eye on the stump area?
What's a contracture?
That's when it becomes knotty and you can't extend it.
Is elevation good or bad?
Bad - don't keep the part elevated for too long!
Neuroma = what is it?
A tumor that can be painful - it's at the amputation site.
With phantom limb pain, how do we treat it?
Well, it happens in about 55-85% of the cases - we should start with opioids but not long term. They might need other drugs, TENS, mirror therapy, etc.
Will the patient need psychological support?
YES - lots of it for many different things. Focus on them!
What is muscular dystrophy?
Progressive muscle weakness, death of muscle cells and tissues - it's a gene problem.
What are the muscle types? (3)
Skeletal (Voluntary and striated), Cardiac (involuntary and striated), Smooth (Involuntary and non-striated)
What are some problems with muscle weakness of skeletal muscle?
Impaired mobility, contractures, spin changes and breathing problems.
What are some problems with muscle weakness of cardiac muscle?
Heart problems, decompensation
What are some problems with muscle weakness of smooth muscle?
Swallowing difficulty, blood pressure
How do we diagnose MD?
Creatinine kinase, electromyography, muscle biopsy, heart and lung function
What is the treatment for MD?
Corticosteroids, therapy (ROM, exercise, braces, assistive devices, respiratory assistance, etc.
What are some other complications for MD patients?
Fall risk, skin breakdown, blood stasis (PE, DVT), pneumonia, psychological sequelae (a psych problem resulting from a disease, etc.)
What does a tendon do?
It's fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
What does a ligament do?
It's a strong, dense, flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone.
What does cartilage do?
It's fibers embedded in a gel-like substance that protect articulating surfaces of joints.
What does synovial fluid do?
It's a viscous fluid that reduces friction between articular cartilage of synovial joints.
What is arthritis?
A problem within the joint (cartilage or synovial fluid)
Loss of cartilage on articulating surfaces of bone
Osteoarthritis - what happens?
Pain, stiffness, tenderness, limited ROM, crepitus, inflammation
What's the goal of osteoarthritis treatment?
Relieve symptoms and improve function! So plan activity when pain isn't bad, use heat therapy and meds before therapy, etc.
What's rheumatoid arthritis?
Synovitis - inflammation of the synovial joint. It's genetic/autoimmune.
What happens in rheumatoid arthritis (symptoms?)
Redness, swelling, warmth, erythema, stiffness, deformities.
What's the goal of RA treatment?
Slow progression, maximum mobility, pain management.
Is there a cure for RA?
Nope - just focus on pain/inflammation management.
RA - Reduces life expectancy and ability to work (after about 10 years). T/F?
True! :( :( :(
Sprain - involves...
Strain - involves...