Flashcards in Immune System - Unit 4 Deck (44):
What are the 1st, 2nd and 3rd levels of protection signify?
What is the ZU?
It is the group of assassins that are non-specific and kill any foreign invader.
Where would it be best to put protection?
What do the neutrophils do?
They are the first responder. They are directed by the cytokines.
For the body, what is the first level of protection?
Mucosal fluids, normal flora.
For the body, what is the second level of protection?
Endothelium, skin, membranes.
For the body, what is the 3rd level of protection?
Macrophages, neutrophils, etc.
What can harm the first level?
What can harm the second level?
What can harm the third level?
What do the macrophages do?
They are the lookout "Marathon" man. They can fight for a long time.
What do the neutrophils do?
They are the suicidal patrol man. They patrol....and die within hours. Once they kill one thing, they are done.
What do the natural killer cells do?
They are the psychopath - they will kill any infected cell!
What do the cytokines do?
They are released by the macrophages. They are the alarm system.
What is phagocytosis?
It's cell eating. om nom nom.
Antimicrobial proteins can differentiate. T/F?
They do not differentiate.
Why do we have vesicles, phagocytosis, etc?
It breaks it down and shows it off!
What type of immunity happens if the innate immunity can't handle it?
Who are the scientists?
B-Cells - they isolate the specific trait, create special drones (which are antibodies, sent by the B cells) that recognize the trait and deploy the drones.
What do B-Cells become?
How is the General?
The helper T-Cell. It directs and motivates
Who are the killer detectives?
Cytotoxic t-cells. They are trained to recognize the subtle signs of zombie infection and target those who appear to be infected.
The helper cells - antigen presenting cells. What do they do?
They take the infection to the processing unit - the lymph node - so everyone can see it and know what to fight against.
What's the normal WBC level?
What's the normal neutrophil percentage?
What's the normal band percentage?
Band = Immature neutrophil. 0-3%
What's the normal seg percentage?
What's the normal lymphocyte percentage?
What's the normal monocyte percentage?
What's the normal eosinophil percentage?
What's the normal basophil percentage?
Neutrophils - if there are more bands, what is this called?
Monocytes - what do they become?
They become macrophages once they are transferred into the cell.
If Eosinophils are elevated, what does that mean?
There's a parasitic infection or an allergic response!
Can basophils have a part in an allergic reaction?
Yes, but they die when they go to the scene so the level might actually go down.
What does histamine do?
It causes vasodilation, so blood flow is increased to that area. It increases vascular permeability as well.
Urticaria - def
Pruritus - def
Urticaria - hives.
Pruritus - itching.
What is anaphylaxis? What do we do for it?
This is a severe allergic reaction.
The patient needs EPINEPHRINE!
Possibility of anaphylaxis - what do we keep nearby?
A trach kit and oxygen - and suction stuff as well.
What is type 1 hypersensitivity?
Anaphylactic shock - what we know!
What is type 2 hypersensitivity?
Cytotoxic - it's autoimmune - antibodies produced by the immune system bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surface.
What is type 3 hypersensitivity?
This occurs when antigen-antibody complexes that are not adequately cleared by innate immune cells accumulates, causing an inflammatory response and an attraction of leukocytes.
Lupus is an example!
What is type 4 hypersensitivity?
This is delayed type - it's cell-mediated. This could be like DM Type 1