Hematology/Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Hematology/Immunology Deck (41):
1

Name the condition: Blood enzyme disorder with skin lesions caused by the sun.

Porphyria

2

When is TIBC increased and decreased?

INCREASED: Fe deficiency anemia, PG and hormonal birth control.
DECREASED: Anemia chronic disease, sideroblastic anemia and hemochromatosis.

3

What defines a "left shift"? a "right shift"?

Over 6% immature band neutrophils (indicates bacterial infection.

Hypersegmented neutrophils - macrocytic anemia. B12-Folate deficiency

4

Common causes of microcytic anemia?

Iron def, thalassemia, sideroblastic anemia, lead poisoning

5

Common causes of normocytic anemia?

Acute blood loss, hemolysis, anemia of chronic dz, anemia of renal failure, myelodysplastic syndromes

6

Common causes of macrocytic anemia?

Folate or B12 def, drug toxicity, alcoholism/chronic liver dz

7

What is contraindicated in patients with G6P deficiency?

Oxidant drugs (e.g. Vit C > 5 gram), sulfa-drugs

8

What is a primary presenting symptom of sickle cell crisis?

Bone pain after exertion

9

What vascular bleeding disorder occurs in children after acute URI and report joint pain, abd pain, and possible renal involvement?

Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

10

Disorder that follows URI or viral infection and present with petechiae and other bleeding (gums).

Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura

11

Disorders of 30-40yo due to inhibitor of vWF-cleaving protease and unchecked platelet aggregation.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

12

What are common organisms that might cause Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome?

E. Coli O157:H7, Shigella, Staphylococcus, or other E. Coli

Drugs to - esp chemo, and OCPs

13

In what condition are Bence Jones proteinuria found?

Multiple myeloma

14

MC hereditary coagulation disorder presenting with possible hx of heavy menses, epistaxis, easy bruising, GI bleeds.

Von Willebrand's Dz

15

Causes of DIC.

Complications of obstetrics, infection (Gm - with endotoxin), malignancy (adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, prostate, or leukemia)

16

Hemophilia A is associated with a genetic deficiency of what factor?

Factor VIII `

17

Hemophilia B is associated with a genetic deficiency of what factor?

Factor IX `

18

Name the disorder: absolute inc in red cell mass, ssx: fatigue, weakness, dizziness, HA, visual problems, itching after warm bath, easy bruising or bleeding with little or no injury

Polycythemia vera (malignant)

19

What are SSX of multiple myeloma?

Bone/back pain, unexplained fractures, bleeding problems, aggravation of arrhythmias

20

What finding is pathognomonic for AML found MC in adults 15-39 yo?

Auer rods

21

Which leukemias is MC in children and has 90% survival rate?

ALL

22

What leukemia is found in older people (65 yo average) and has a very poor prognosis? What cytogenetic abnormality is found in 95% of pts with this leukemia?

CML

The Philadelphia chromosome

23

What leukemia is found in the much older population and usually presents with no symptoms? What type of cell is found in this leukemia?

CLL

Slowest and sneakiest
Virgin B cell (smudge cells)

24

Name the CA: 20yo or 60 yo age predominance. "single/asymptomatic node spreads," unexplained recurrent fevers, night sweats.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

25

What cell is seen in Hodgkin's disease?

Reed-Sternberg cells

26

MC Lymphoma, most deadly, associated with Burkitt's and immunoblastic lymphomas

Non-hodgkins lymphoma

27

B-lymphocyte tumor, LA in the maxilla or mandible, assoc w/ EBV in US, Malaria in Africa, predisposes to Non-hodgkin's lymphoma.

Burkitt's lymphoma

28

Tests for H. pylori.

Nitrogen breath test (sens)
Serum IgG
Serum IgM
Serum, Salivary, or Stool IgA (sens)

29

Tests for syphilis

VDRL/RPR

30

Gm + antimicrobials

Bacitracin
Vancomycin
Penicillin G

31

Gm - antimicrobials

Aminoglycosides
Polymyxins

32

Broad spectrum antimicrobials

Quinolones
Ampicillin
Cephalosporins
Tetracyclines
Chloramphenicol
Sulfonamides

33

Target INR on warfarin therapy?

2-3

34

What problem might a pt with a potential penicillin allergy in taking a cephalosporin?

15% cross reactivity

35

What virus is associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma?

EBV

36

Symptom picture for multiple myeloma?

Calcemia (Hyper)
Renal failure
Anemia
Bony Lesions

37

What workup would you find in dermatomyositis and polymyositis?

ANA pos in 30%
Elevated muscle enzymes
Inc creatinine kinase, ALT, AST
Muscle biopsy shows lymphocytic infiltrate

38

What two conditions often have positive HLAB27?

Ankylosing spondylitis
Reiter's Syndrome (Reactive arthritis)

39

What is the constellation of symptoms of Scleroderma?

Calcification
Raynaud's
Esophageal dysmotility
Sclerodactyly
Telangiectasias

40

What lab work is indicated in a patient with SLE?

ANA - screen
Anti-dsDNA and Anti-Smith
Titers of Anti-dsDNA and C3, C4 to monitor treatment

41

What dose of epi IM in anaphylaxis? Benadryl?

.3-.5 1:1000 IM, q5-15 min
50mg IV or IM q4-6hrs