Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

NPLEX 2 > Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (119):
1

What drugs end in "litazone”?

Thiazolidinedione-type, also called “glitazones"

2

What drugs end in "ronates”?

Bisphosphonates

3

What smokinc cessation medication is lethal in children and CI in pregnancy?

Nicotin gum and patches

4

What is a sign of nicotine toxicity?

Nightmares

5

What substances/medication induce CYP1A2?

Caffeine, theophylline, TCA's, Warfarin, and Nicotine

6

What medications are indicated for glaucoma? What class are they?

Pilocarpine - cholinergic agonist

Physostigmine - cholinesterase inhibitor

7

What are common AE observed with neuroleptics?

Tremors/parkinsonian effects, tardive dyskinesia, postural hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention, sexual dysfunction, drowsiness

8

What are symptoms of neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

catatonia, fluctuating BP, dysarthria, fever, death

Counteract with dopamine agonist (Bromocriptine)

9

What is the MOA of the phenothiazines (antipsychotics)? What about haloperidol?

Dopamine blockade

Dop block + H1 blockade

10

What are important AE with antipsychotics?

Extrapyramidal reactions

11

What drugs are contraindicated in depressed patients?

Antipsychotics

12

What other hormone is released as a result of dopamine blockade?

Prolactin

13

What two neurotransmitters are blocked with Respiradone?

Serotonin and Dopamine

14

What is a serious AE of Clozapine?

Agranulocytosis

15

How does Buproprion lowers seizure threshold?

Spares catecholamines

16

What vitamin is required by MAO to operate properly?

B6

17

What cofactors are required by COMT?

Mg and SAMe

18

What amino acid become serotonin?

Tryptophan

19

Induce or inhibit CYP450 3A4: barbituates, glucocorticoids, phenytoin, hypericum

Induce

20

Induce or inhibit CYP460 3A4: ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, grapefruit juice, Itraconazole, ranitidine, miconazole, ketoconazole, metronidazole

Inhibit

21

Which drugs block reuptake of MAO and inc NE and serotonin?

TCAs - Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Doxepin, etc.

22

Which drugs are modified serotonin effectors?

Venlafaxine
Mirtazapine

23

How do MSE's work?

SSRI + Inc Serotonin prod + NE receptor effects

24

What case class of drug is Duloxetine?

SSNRI

25

Which medication is used for neuropathic pain, post-herpetic neuralgia, and fibromyalgia? I

Pregabalin - block alpha2delta subunit and reduces Ca dependent release of neurotransmitters

26

Name two serotonin transporter inhibiting medications.

Desyrel and Serzone

27

What neurosteroid enhances GABA in the brain?

The degradation of progesterone

28

High dose vitex inc what hormone?

Progesterone

29

Which drug is an anxiolytic without sedation or euphoria and modulates Serotonin/Dopamine/NE activity?

Buspirone

30

What medications are given acutely for seizure?

Diazepam and Ca Gluconate IV

31

What is the action of Hydroxyzine and indication?

H1 Blocker
Anxiolytic

32

How does glycine work in the brain?

Cl channel blocker
Calming

33

What herbs should you not administer within two weeks of an MAO inhibitor?

Rauwolfia or Reserpine

34

What two drugs for bipolar drugs require regular blood levels due to potential toxicity?

Lithium and Valproic Acid

35

What neuropathic pain medication is also used in bipolar?

Gabapentin

36

What is Lithium's action?

Interferes with Na ions in the brain.

37

What dietary recommendation should you NOT make with pt taking lithium?

Low Na diets!!!

38

What drugs end in "tidine"?

H2 Blockers
Lower Acid in the stomach
H1 is for snotty noses

39

What drugs end in "prazoles"?

PPIs

40

What mineral deficiency is a problem in PPI usage?

Magnesium

41

What is Sucralfate?

GI Demulcent

42

What is Metoclopramide?

Stimulates upper GI motility, can affect CNS (extrapyramidal effects)

43

What are two Belladonna alkaloids? And what action do they have?

Hyoscyamine, Dicyclomine

Anticholinergic

44

Dephenoxlylate w/ Atropine as well as Loperamide are what type of drug?

Anti-diarrheal

45

How does Docusate (Colace) work?

Reduce surface tension of the oil-water interface of stool to soften it.

46

What is the MOA of "triptans"? What condition do you NOT want to use triptans?

agonist for a vascular 5-HTP1 receptor subtype - resulting in vasoconstriction

DO NOT USE in basilar artery disease, HTN, w/ MAO inhibitors.

47

What is the combo drug of carbi-levodopa?

Sinemet - can use lower dose initially

48

Bromocriptine and Pergolide are _____ derivative dopamine agonists.

Pramipexole and Ropinirole are _____ dopamine agonists.

Ergot

Non-ergot

49

In end-stage Parkinson's, what previously CI drug is used to keep dopamine from being broken down in the brain?

MAO inhibitors

50

What type of drugs are often used in Alzheimer's dz?

Acetylcholine sparing: Donepezil, Tacrine hydrochloride, galantamine, rivastigmine

NMDA/Glutamate blocker: Namenda

51

T/F: Schedule 1 drugs have accepted use.

F

52

What type of medications are cyclobenzaprine carisoprodol? What is important to remember about cyclobenzaprine?

Muscle relaxants

It is a tricyclic derivative - therefore do NOT use with MAO inhibitors.

53

Describe the symptoms of cinchonism.

Tinnitus, HA, nausea, dizziness, vertigo, visual changes

54

What do each of the pregnancy categories A-D mean?

A - The safest drugs to take during pregnancy. No known adverse reactions.
B - No risks have been found in humans.
C - Not enough research has been done to determine if these drugs are safe.
D - Adverse reactions have been found in humans.

55

What two drugs are opiate receptor blockers used for opiate overdose, CA, and AI?

Naloxone and Naltrexone

56

What is the MAX safety dose for acetaminophen? What is the toxic single dose?

3-4g

7-10g (140mg/kg)

NAPQI - toxic metabolite

57

What is the antidote to acetaminophen toxicity?

NAC

58

What is a major concern of Tramadol HCl (Ultram)?

Lowers seizure threshold.

59

How can NSAIDs affect asthmatics?

Can shunt toward leukotrienes - worsening asthma

60

What are drugs ending in "sone," "zone" or "onide"?

Steroids

61

What is the ratio of Prednisone to Cortisone?

4:1
5mg Pred = 20 mg Cortisone

Cortisone is basically to what we make naturally.

62

What are two gout medications that are also toxic to the liver and often cause GI upset?

Allopurinol and colchicine

Can used prednisone or naproxen which are less toxic.

63

Which hormone has a gaba-like effect as a neurosteroid?

Progesterone

64

Which neurotransmitters are blocked in cocaine use?

Dopamine, NE, Serotonin

Euphoria, energy, confidence

65

T/F: MDMA or Ecstasy has a very weak affinity for serotonin transporters.

F, STRONG affinity for serotonin

66

For what condition is Tolterodine indicated? What is it's MOA?

Urinary incontinence or overactive bladder
Anticholinergic

67

What is a finding on ECG of Amitriptyline overdose?

Wide QRS complex ventricular tachycardia

68

indication(s), side effect(s), and interaction(s)/contraindication(s).

Ind:
SE:
Intxn:
CI:

69

What drugs end in "cyclovir or vir”?

Antiviral

70

What drugs end in "azole”?

Antifungal

71

What drugs end in "cycline”?

Antibiotic

72

What drugs end in "penicillin”?

Antibiotic

73

What drugs end in "olol”?

Beta blocker

74

What drugs end in "pril”?

ACE Inhibitor

75

What drugs end in "sartan”?

ARB

76

What drugs end in "amlodipine or pine”?

Ca Channel Blocker

77

What are the side effects of alendronate?

Esophageal irritation. Avascular necrosis of the jaw.

78

What are the adverse events related to atorvostatin?

Increased CK, mild upper GI disturbance, sleep issues, HA, rash, myopathy, Coq10 depletion

Rare: periph neuro, impotence

79

What is important to check every 3 months when taking a statin?

ALT liver function

80

What cholesterol marker is most affected by a statin medication?

LDL

81

What cholesterol marker is most affected by fibrate medication?

Triglycerides

82

What drugs/supplements require ionization (requiring stomach acid)?

Antifungals, Mineral

Problem with PPIs

83

How does substances that increase albumin binding affect drug availability? Decrease albumin binding?

Decreased availability
Increased availability

84

Describe phase 1 and phase 2 detox.

Phase 1 - CYP450, render non-polar substance polar through oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, and hydration. Cofactors: B2, 3, 4, 12, folate, GSH, AA's

Phase 2 - Conjugation, tak more polar P450 metabolites and conjugate them with amino acids

85

What consideration is made for pt w/ kidney dz or dec GFR when dosing renally cleared medication?

Might need to have a lower dose due to higher conc in the blood.

86

Term: time required for half of that substance to be removed from an organism.

Half-life

87

How many half-lives does sit take for a drug's serum conc to reach steady state?

4.7 (5X rule)

88

Drugs that are easily displaced from album, therefore inc plasma drug level

Sulfonamides
Phenylbutazone
Tolbutamide
Coumarin

89

Drugs that induce P450, therefore dec plasma drug levels

Alcohol
Barbiturates
Phenytoin
Rifampicin

90

Drugs that inhibit P450, inc plasma drug level

Chloramphenicol
Sulfonamides
Phenylbutazone

91

Drugs that compete for renal transporters, inc plasma drug levels

Uric acid
Probenecid
Penicillins
Sulfonamides
Salicylates
Thiazides
NSAIDs

92

Which antibiotics are famous for their ototoxicity side effects?

Aminoglycosides

93

Name the antidote:
1) Acetaminophen
2) Opiates
3) Benzodiazepines
4) Methanol/Ethylene glycol
5) CO
6) Cyanide
7) Organophosphates
8) Iron
9) Lead
10) Coumarins
11) Heparin

1) NAC
2) Naloxone
3) Flumazenil
4) Ethanol
5) 100% O2
6) Amyl nitrate
7) Atropine
8) Deferoxamine
9) EDTA
10) Vit K
11) Protamine

94

Name the acetylcholine receptor:
1) found at postsynaptic parasympathetic locations

2) autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla, neuromuscular junction

1) Muscarinic
2) Nicotinic

95

Classic:
1) sympathomimetic drug
2) sympatholytic drug
3)parasympathomimetic drug
4) parasympatholytic

1) Epi
2) Rauwolfia/Reserpine
3) Pilocarpine (used in ophthalmology)
4) Atropine

96

How does digitalis act to improve atrial dysfunction?

Increases intracellular Ca elongating plateau of cardiac AP (by blocking Na/K ATPase pump)

97

What drugs end in "sone," "zone," or "onide"?

Glucocorticoid

98

What medication for allergic rxn is CI w/ CNS depressants and MAO inhibitors?

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

99

What nasal spray (or rx eye drops) stimulate a1 receptors causing vasoconstriction? What is it CI in? What interaction is important to remember

Oxymetazoline
CI in severe HTN
DO NOT USE w/ MAO inhibitors

100

Which drugs require therapeutic monitoring?

Digoxin, phenytoin, lithium, carbamazepine, theophylline.

101

What drugs end in "afil"?

erectile dysfunction meds

102

What drugs end in "romycin"?

MacROlides

103

T/F: Macrolides are CI in pregnancy.

T

104

What is the concern with tetracyclines in children < 9yo?

Permanent discoloration of teeth

ALSO interferes with OCPs

105

What drugs can cause a hemolytic crisis in g6p deficiency

Sulfonamides

106

What side effect is a hallmark of Fluoroquinolones? What pt population should you NOT prescribe fluoroquinolones?

Achilles Tendon Rupture (BBW)

Children <18yo
Can arrest growth plates

107

What is the biggest problem/adverse event with aminoglycosides?

Severe ototoxicity

108

What are the three TB drugs?

Isoniazid
Rifampin
Pyrazinamide

Depletes B6 - give w/ B6

109

Three type of HIV tx.

Nucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitors
Non Nucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitors
Protease inhibitors

110

What is the indication for Adalimumab? Action?

RA, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's dz, mod-sev chronic psoriasis, and juvenile RA

TNF - blocker

111

Adverse events with interferon tx.

Flu-like zx
Depression/suicide
Hypothyroidism
Fatigue
Diarrhea
Etc.

112

What is the indication for Tacrolimus? Action?

Organ transplant
Chronic tx of mod-sev atopic derm

Suppresses cell-mediated immune reaction

113

What is the indication for Anastrozole? Action?

Breast CA after surgery and for METS

Aromatase inhibitor - block conversion of testosterone to estrogen

114

What is the indication for Doxorubicin? Action? Most serious AE?

Hematologic malignancy, Carcinomas, soft tissue Sarcoma

Antibiotic (Anti-DNA) - administered IV

Life-threatening heart damage

115

What is the indication for Paclitaxel? Action? Common SE?

Lung, ovarian, breast, head/neck CA and advanced Kaposi's sarcoma

Mitotic inhibitor (from Pacific yew tree)

SE: Neuropathy

116

What is the indication for Vinblastine? Action?

Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-small cell lung CA, breast, head/neck, testicular CA

Binds tubulin

117

What is the indication for Methotrexate? Action? What would you NOT give with methotrexate?

Chemo, Preg termination, Autoimmune disorders

Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor

Folic acid

118

Drugs that end in "sone," "zone," or "onide"?

Steroid

119

What is the indication for DMPS/DMSA? Adverse events?

Mercury/Lead poisoning/heavy metals

DMPS (IV)
DMSA (oral)

AE: Hypomagnesemia, hypotension