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Flashcards in Nutrition Deck (116):
1

What vitamin preserves glutathione?

Vit C

2

What is the best antioxidant for LDL?

Vit E

3

What is the difference between retinol and B-carotene?

B-carotene is two retinol

More difficult to break down to retinol in the body

4

What considerations should you have when using therapeutic amino acids?

Ensure cofactors are administered with AA
Give away from food/protein
Divide doses > 1g
Managed blood sugar and thyroid levels

5

What vitamin is used heavily in transaminase reactions?

B6 (if liver enzymes are elevated often indicates more of a need for B6)

6

Name the macromineral:
Most abundant cation in the body
Functions in muscle contraction, myocardial contractility, propagation of nerve signals, blood coagulation, maintenance of selective membrane permeability, reg of many cell functions, bone matrix.

Ca!

7

Name the macromineral:
Second most abundant mineral in the body
85% in bone
Functions in nucleic acids, cell membranes, energy-producing reaction, structural component of bone matrix.

Phosphorus

8

Name the macromineral:
Functions as cofactor in various enzyme reactions including protein synthesis, cAMP formation, muscle contraction, fatty acid synthesis, RNA/DNA synthesis, activates B vit

Mg

9

Name the macromineral:
Primarily extracellular ion
Maintains fluid balance between intra/extra cellular fluid compartments, acid base balance, nerve and muscle excitability.

Na

10

Name the macromineral:
Primary intracellular io
Functions to maintain acid-base balance and excitability of nerves and muscles

Potassium (K)

11

Name the micromineral:
Moste used in hemoglobin
Function in O2 transport, energy creation, and activation of oxygen

Fe

12

Name the micromineral:
Functions as cofactor for enzymes for protein digestion and metabolism of alcohol, works in conj w/ Vit A needed for normal reproduction, cell division, wound healing, and vision/senses.

Zn

13

Name the micromineral:
Needed for Fe mobilization from liver, cofactor for superoxide dismutase, collagen synthesis, blood clotting, and energy production, needed for enzyme breakdown of estrogens.

Cu

14

Name the micromineral:
Part of enzyme glutathione peroxidase, protective in heavy metal toxicity (mercury)

Se

15

Name the micromineral:
Part of B12

Cobalt

16

Name the micromineral:
Normal component of calcified tissues

F

17

Name the micromineral: Part of organic matrix of cartilage and bone

Si

18

Name the micromineral:
Needed for normal cartilage formation, cholesterol synthesis, avoids fatty liver, and allows for normal brain chemistry

Mn

19

Name the micromineral:
Needed for normal insulin function and glucose metabolism

Chromium

20

Name the micromineral:
Essential for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones

Iodine

21

T/F: High dose omega-3 can cause Vit A toxicity.

T

22

Food sources of iron.

Leafy greens, meat (chicken, beef, fish),

23

What diet is used in GI diet?

Bland diet - low fiber, low irritant
CI in severe IBD, IBS

24

What liquid diet can be indicated in Crohn's?

Elemental diet
Difficult to maintain good nutritional status

25

What condition is a high carbohydrate diet used for?

Malnutrition
CI for cavities

26

What diet is used in epilepsy?

Ketogenic diet/High fat diet

27

What diet is comprised of eating whole foods, vegetarian, less carbs, higher-quality complex carbs?

High fiber diet (low fat diet, pritikin, ornish)

28

What diet is used in DM, anorexia, and obesity and is CI in kidney dz, OA, heart dz, and gout?

High protein diet, Atkins diet

29

When is a low protein diet indicated?

Renal failure, gout

30

When is a low protein diet indicated?

Renal failure, gout

31

What is the portfolio diet used for? What does it include?

Cholesterol management
Nuts, plant sterols, viscous fiber, soy protein

32

What conditions would you use the mediterranean diet for?

Heart health/dz, CA, Parkinson's, Alzheimer

33

What Omega-3 is most helpful in dermatologic conditions? What dose?

EPA
1-6g daily

34

What Omega-3 is most helpful in brain conditions?

DHA

35

What Omega-6 is the most therapeutic? What conditions would indicate Omega-6 use? Sources?

GLA
Allergies, RA, Asthma
Evening primrose, borage

36

What conditions are benefited by Omega-9 (oleic acid)?
Sources?

Atherosclerosis, decreases BP/cholesterol
Olive oil, peanuts, avocado, almonds

37

What are essential proteins?

PVT TIM HALL
Phenylalanin
Valine
Threonine

Tryptophan
Isoleucine
Methionine

Histidine
Argininine
Lysine
Leucine


38

Name the amino acid:
Wound healing, release insulin, GABA precursor, male infertility, immune stimulation

Arginine
Arg, the pirate has sex!

39

Name the amino acid:
Used in anemia, RA, allergies

Histidine

40

Name the amino acid(s):
BCAAs - muscles strength, endurance, stamina

Isoleucine, leucine, and valine

41

Name the amino acid:
HSV, lowers triglycerides, forms collagen/connective tissues

Lysine

42

Name the amino acid:
Reduces cholesterol, antioxidant, hair/skin/nails due to sulfor, precursor for carnitine, melatonin, choline.

Methionine

43

Name the amino acid:
Alcoholism, OA, depression, arthritis, can be used as monotherapy

SAMe

44

Name the amino acid:
Enhance mood, thought, conc, memory, suppress appetite, antidepressant.
CI in phenylketonuria (PKU)
Used in Parkinson's, depression, Brain conditions

Phenylalanine

45

Name the amino acid:
BRAIN
Epilepsy, depression, MS, alcoholism, ALS
Detox

Threonine

46

Name the amino acid:
Depression, insomnia, pain, anxiety, migraines. Requires B6 (P5P) to be converted.

Tryptophan (5-HTP)

47

Name the amino acid:
Energy for MUSCLES, part of connective tissue
BPH

Alanine

48

Name the amino acid:
Excitatory, liver protective

Asparagine/Aspartic acid

49

Name the amino acid:
Antioxidant, skin growth/repair, hair ingredient.

Chronic bronchitis (mucolytic)

Cysteine (NAC)

50

Name the amino acid:
Excitatory
Precursor to glutamine and GABA
Stop alcohol/sugar craving
Inc energy

Glutamic acid

51

Name the amino acid:
Ulcers, leaky gut, IBS/IBD
Precursor to GABA
Highest blood conc

Glutamine

52

Name the amino acid:
Inhibitory
Schizophrenia, panic, anxiety
Helps with glycogen metabolism, glucagon production.
CI: Antipsychotic meds (clozapine)

Glycine

53

Name the amino acid:
Cartilage, health of joints, tendons, ligaments
Heart muscle function

Proline

54

Name the amino acid:
Blood sugar maintenance
Immunity
Myelin sheath (MS)

Serine

55

Name the amino acid:
HEART
Stabilized cell membranes, anticonvulsant
Cardiomyopathy, CHF, HTN
Food for heart

Taurine

56

Name the amino acid:
Precursor to serotonin, thyroxine, L-dopa
Requires B6 (P5P) to convert to NE
Hypothyroidism, Parkinson's, Depression

Tyrosine

57

What lab monitoring for Vit A? Food sources?

Liver biopsy (most sensitive/specific), serum retinol

Fish, liver, dairy

58

Indications for Vit A?

Immune, skin, eyes

59

What vitamin is NOT FOR SMOKERS?

Beta-carotene - increased risk in smokers

60

What condition is Biotin CI in?

Psoriasis

61

Thiamine (B1) indications?

Alcoholism, neurologic, fibrocystic breast dz

62

Riboflavin (B2) indications?

Cataract, mag degen, migraine, muscle cramps

63

Niacin (B3) indications? What is a side effect of high dose niacin?

Hyperlipidemia, DM, migraines, schizophrenia

Flushing

64

Niacin (amides) tend to be used for what conditions? Niacin/nicotinic acid?

Psychiatric conditions

Lipids (raises HDL, better than anything)

65

Pantothenic acid (B5) indications?

Adrenals, allergic rhinitis

66

Pyridoxine (B6) indications? Safety consideration?

Pain, nausea, PMS, depression, diabetes, asthma, etc.

>500mg/d periph neuropathy

67

Cobalamin (B12) indications?

Megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, memory loss, periph neuropathy.

68

What must be given w/ B12 to prevent deficiency?

Folate

69

Folate/Folic acid indications? Food sources

Anemia, cervical dysplasia, cancer, neurological, oral dz

Liver, greens, beets

70

Vit C indications? Toxicity issues?

CA, immune, colds, CVD, asthma, allergies

Dialysis, diarrhea, iron overload
Doses 1-2 gram to bowel tolerance

71

Vit D indications? Toxicity issues?

Osteoporosis, bone, hypoparathyroidism, CA

> 10 IU over 6 mo potentially unsafe

72

Vit E indications? Toxicity issues?

Brain issues, alzheimer, parkinson, memory, cognition, atherosclerosis, PMS, CA

Synthetic forms may inc risk/cause CA

73

Vit K indications? Which K is used most often in supplementation?

Klotting d/t deficiency, osteoporosis

K2

Dark leafy greens

74

Boron indication?

Osteoporosis

75

Calcium indication?

Bone, muscle (tetany, spasm), allergies

76

Magnesium indication? What are the different forms used for?

Muscle relaxant, HTN, restless leg syndrome, migraines, asthma, laxative

Citrate - well absorbed
Carbonate - more laxative effects
Bisglycinate - muscle pain/spasms
Malate - chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia (energy production)

77

Chromium indication?

Blood sugar regulation
Hypo or Hyper

78

Copper indication? Copper is depleted by what other mineral? What ratio?

Immune, bone, anemia

Zinc

Zinc: Copper = 20:1

79

Fluoride indication? Toxicity issues?

teeth, dental caries

CNS damage

80

Iodine indications? Toxicity issues?

COPD, CF, sinusitis, fibrocystic breast, thyroid issues

Hypothyroidism goiter

81

Manganese indications?

DM, immune issues, arthritis

82

Molybdenum indications?

Asthma

83

Potassium indications? Food sources? Risks?

People that are depleted - athletes, crohn's eating disorders, smokers, drug/alcohol users

Banana, avocado, nuts, citrus fruit, greens

Intx w/ drugs, kidney, DM, heart dz - more risk overdose: confusion, low BP, irreg HR

Normal dose 4700mg daily

84

Selenium indications? Risk?

Atherosclerosis, eyes, CA, immun, thyroid (antioxidant)

Standard dose is 200mcg qd. Narrow margin of safety when > 600mcg

85

Silicon indication?

Osteoporosis

86

Sodium indication?

Hypotension, dehydration (IV)

87

Zinc indications?

Skin, immune, prostate health

Large doses can cause Copper deficiency
25-50mg (anything higher, be cautious)

88

Vanadium indication?

DM (mcg)

89

GABA indication?

Relaxation, anxiety, sleep (500-1500mg)
Inhibitory neurotransmitter

90

Carnitine indications? Acetyl-L-carnitine indications?

HEART (angina, CHF, intermittent claudication)

BRAIN (dementia, alzheimer, depression, alcohol)

Also cataracts, nerve pain, infertility

91

Choline indications?

BRAIN
Alcoholism, epilepsy, memory loss

As a component of lecithin (good for liver health)

92

CoQ10 indications? What depletes CoQ10?

Heart, muscles
HTN
Depleted by statins

Doses 100-250mg

93

Dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) indications?

Alzheimer, tardive dyskinesia, ADHD
Found in fish
Used to boost brain, precursor to acetylcholine

94

Dimethyl sulfoxid (DMSO) indications?

DMSO is SO good at promoting healing - oral, topical, or IV

Antioxidant, NSAID for injury or arthritis

95

Flavonoid indications?

Inflammation, anti-allergy, CVD, DM, herpes, venous insufficiency

500-1500 mg

96

Glucosamine/Chondroitin sulfate indicationS?

Osteoarthritis
Builds cartilage, but requires higher dose > 1-3g, needs to be taken young and for a long period of time.

97

Glutathione indications?

Detox, conditions of oxidative stress
Aids, liver dz, DM, cataract

Can be nebulized, but CI with pts with sulfide allergy (sensitive to wine) or asthma

98

Indole-3-Carbinol or DIM indications? Food sources?

CA prevention (esp breast and cervical)

Cruciferous veg (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale)

99

Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) indications?

Arteries
Atherosclerosis, hypercholesterol, DM, periph vacular dz

100

Myo Inositol indications?

PCOS, fertility

101

Isoflavone indications? Dose?

"estrogen conditions"
Menopause, PMS, endometriosis, fibroids
Dose: 2 tbs daily

102

Methylsufonyl methane (MSM) indications?

Skin, pain relief, anti-inflam, anti-allergy
Some topical, can be oral

103

Para-amino Benzoic acid (PABA) indications?

Skin, scars, sunscreen
Used topically

104

Phosphatidylcholine (Lecithin) indications?

Hepatoprotective, Alzheimer's, hypercholesterol

105

Phosphatidylserine indications?

BRAIN
Alzheimer, Parkinson's, depression, stress
Age-related cog decline

106

Policosanol indications?

Hypercholesterolemia, PCOS

107

Superoxide dismutase indications?

Free radical scavenger
Oxidative stress conditions, antioxidant

108

Amylase indication?

Carbohydrate digestion

109

Beta-galactosidase indication?

Lactose intolerance, lactase digestion

110

HCl (betaine glutamic hydrochloric acid) indication? Safety concern?

Hypo or achlorhydria

Ulcer formation
Elderly are low in HCl, Acne rosacea

111

Lipase

Fat malabsorption
Useful in GB removal

112

Pancreatin indications?

Protein malabsorption
Systemic anti inflammatory

113

Papain/Bromelain indication?

Systemic use for inflammation
Take away from food.

114

If using enzymes to digest food take ______ . If using enzymes for systemic inflammation ______.

With food

Away from food

115

Pepsin/protease indications?

Protein malabsorption

116

Where is B12 absorbed? And what is required?

Terminal ileum
Acid and Intrinsic factor