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Flashcards in Heme Deck (45):
1

PTT

intrinsic: 12, 11, 9, 8 (2), 10

2

PT

extrinsic: 7, 10

3

what does vWF carry?

factor 8

4

hemophilia A

factor 8 def

5

hemophilia B

factor 9 def

6

where do you see eosinophils?

NAACP (morpheus is in the NCAAP). Neoplasm, Asthma, Allergic, Collagen vascular disease, Parasites

7

Basophile granues contain

heparin, histamine, leukotrienes

8

warfarin mech

inhibits epoxide reductase to block vitamin k reduction. needed to make factor 2,7, 9, 10, C/S

9

vitamin enteric bacteria make for coagulation

vitamin k

10

factor 5 leiden

factor 5 is resistant to C/S (8 is still sensitive)

11

Heparin mechanism

activates antithrombin

12

antithrombin activity

inhibits activated form of factor 2, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12

13

vWF binds to ______ on endothelium

collagen

14

Plates binds to ______ on endothelium with ________

vWF, Gp1B

15

Plates release ______ after binding endothelium

ADP and Ca (ADP promotes coagulation)

16

Plates bind each other via

GpIIb/IIIa to fibrinogen

17

Glanzmann's thrombasthenia

lack of GpIIb/IIIa

18

abciximab

blocks GpIIb/IIIa

19

Bernard-Soulier syndrome

lack of GpIb

20

Thrombomodulin

activates protein c/s

21

ERS increased in

infxn, immune activation, neoplasm, ulcerative colitis, pregnancy

22

ERS decreased in

polycythemia, sickle cell, CHF, microcytosis, hypofibrinogen (any perturb to blood componenets)

23

Acanthocyte

spiny cell. liver disease (cholesterol dysregulation)

24

basophilic stippling

thalassemia, anemia of chronic disease, lead poisoning

25

bite cell

G6PD def

26

schistocyte

RBC frag. DIC, TTP/HURS, mechanical destruction

27

target cell

microcytosis, HbC, Asplenia, thalassemia

28

Heinz bodies

G6DP, Thalassemia. oxidized iron precipates

29

Howel-Jolly bodies

nuclear remnants in RBCs seen in asplenia and mothball ingestion

30

Iron defiecency anemia findings

microcytosis, esophageal webs, low ferritin, high TBIC (weird)

31

alpha thalassemia

all 4 = fatal. 3 = HbH disease. Cis = asian. trans = african

32

beta thalassemia mech and population

splice site/promotoer mutations. in mediterranean populations

33

beta thalassemia minor vs major

minor is heterozygote and has little effect. major is severe and needs transfusions.

34

crew cut x-ray

ectopic blood production = severe thalassemia (beta major)

35

Lead poisoning molecular

inhibs ferrochelatase and ALA dehydratase (heme syn)
inhibits rRNA degradation -> basophilic stippling

36

Lead symptoms and treatment

MICROCYTIC: LEAD Sucks: Lead Lines on gingivae and long bones, Encephalopathy/Erythroyte basophilic stippling, Abdominal colic/sideroblastic Anemia, Drop wrist/foot
Treat with EDTA (1st line), Dimercaprol, SUCcimer

37

Sideroblastic anemia causes

MICROCYTIC: Hereditary: x-linked delta-ALA synthase
Reversible : alcohol, lead, isoiazid

38

Iron laden mitochondria

sideroblastic anemia

39

siderblastic anemia blood test for iron, TIBC, and ferritin. and treatment

high iron, normal TIBC, high ferritin. treat with pyridoxine B6 (cofactor for delta-ALA synthase)

40

megaloblastic anemia deficiencies and differences between them

folate def (normal mehtymalonic acid), B12 deficiency (high methylmalonic acid). cause both are needed to make dNTPs but only B12 used to convert methylmalonate-coA

41

features of macrocytic anemias

hypersegmented neutrophiles, macrocytosis, glossitis

42

sxm of B12 def

anemia, CNS degradation (particularly of the spinal tracts)

43

etiologies of folate deficency:

malnutrition, alcohol, malabsorption, antifolates (methotrexate, thrimethoprim, phenytoin) or higher need (pregnancy, hemolytic anemia)

44

etiologies of B12 defiencey

intake (vegans), malabsorb (crohns), pernicious anemia (intrinsic factor deficency) Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm), proton pump inhibitor

45

orotic aciduria anemia

megaloblastic anemia due to inability to convert orotic acid to uridine. treat with uridine monophosphate.