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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (190):
1

mycoplasma vs mycobacteria

plasma: sterol. bacateria: mycolic acid

2

keratin coat

spore

3

glycocalyx

polysaccharide which enables adherene to surfaces

4

where in the cell are beta-lactamases?

periplasm (between cyto and outer membrane) in gram negative

5

Endotoxin/LPS location

just under capsule in gram negative

6

which has thick peptidoglycon layer?

gram-positive

7

lipoteichoic acid

gram positive

8

bugs that don't gram stain

These Rascals May Microscopically Lack Color:
Treponema, Rickettsia, Mycobacteria, Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia

9

Giemsa stained

Certain Bugs Really Try my Patience:
Chlamydia, Borrelia, Rickettsiae, Trypanosomes, Plasmodium

10

PAS stain (periodic acid-schiff)

stains glycogen to diagnose Whipples (Tropheryma whipplei)

11

Acid fast bugs

Nocardia, Mycobacterium

12

India Ink

Cryptococcus neoformans

13

Silver stain

Fugni (P jeruvici), Legionella, H pylori

14

chocolate agar

H influ

15

VPN media (vanco, polymyxin, nystatin)

nesseria (gonorrhoeae and meningitidis)

16

Potato agar

B. pertussis

17

Eaton agar

M pneumoniae

18

Pink colonies on MacConkeys agar

lactose-fermenting enterics (E. coli and Klebsiella)

19

Green metallic sheen colonies on EMB media

E. coli

20

Charcoal yeast estract agar

legionella

21

Sabouraud's agar

Fungi

22

burn infxn

pseudomonas aeruginosa

23

obligate aerobes

Nagging Pests Must Breath: Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Mycobacteria tub, Bacillus

24

obligate anaerobes

Can't Breath Air: Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces

25

________ cannot kill anaerobes

aminoglycosides

26

obligate intracellular

RC: Rickettsia, Chlamydia

27

facultative intracellular

Some Nasty Bugs May Live FacultativeLY: Salmonella, Neisseria, Brucella, Mycobacterium, Listeria, Francisella, Legionella, Yersinia pestis

28

The spleen clears which bacteria

encapsulated ones

29

Encapsulated bacteria

SHiNE SKiS: Strep pneumo, H influ, Nesseria men, E coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella pneum, group B Strep (agalactiae)

30

vaccines for encapsulated bacteria

capsule (polysaccaride) + protein. to promote t-cell activation and class switching. these are "conjugated'

31

quellung rxn

encapsulated bacteria swell when given correct antisera

32

Catalase-positive organisms

PLACESS for your CAT: Pseudomonas, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E coli, S. aureus, Serratia

33

catalase positive organisms tend to infect people with

chronic granulomatous disease

34

urease-positive bugs

Urinate yourself, CHuck norris hates PUNKSS: Cryptococcus, H. pylori, Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Klebsiella, S. epidermidis, S saprophyticus

35

yellow sulfur granules

actinomyces israelii

36

yellow/gold piment

staph aureus

37

blue-green pigment

pseudomonas aeruginosa

38

red pigment

serratia marcescens

39

S aureus protein A

binds Fc of Ig to prevent

40

secretion of IgA protease

S. pneumo, H. influ, Neisseria

41

group A strep M protein

prevents phagocytosis

42

Endotoxin bacteria type and other name

gram neg. LPS

43

what are exotoxins made from vs endotoxin

Exo: protein Endo: lipopolysaccharide

44

genes of exo vs endo toxin

exo: plasmids or phage. Endo: chromosomal

45

LPS effects

induces TNF and IL-1 causing fever and shock. Heat stable too

46

Diphtheria toxin mech

inactivate EF2

47

Exotoxin A (pseudomonas aeruginosa) mechanism

inactivation of EF2

48

Shiga toxin mechanism

inactivate 60S by removing adenine from rRNA

49

shiga-like toxin mechanism

same as shiga toxin: inactivate 60S ribosome

50

O157:H7 is

EHEC strain

51

LT (Heat-labile) toxin from ETEC mechanism

activate adenylate cyclase (secretion)

52

ST (heat stabile) toxin from ETEC mechanism

overactivate guanylate cyclase (high cGMP). decrease NaCl resorption

53

anthrax edema factor mechanism

mimic adenylate cyclase

54

cholera toxin mechanism

activates adenylate cyclase to increase cAMP

55

pertussis toxin mechanism

overactivates adenylate cyclase by inhibiting Gi and impares pagocytosis

56

tetanospasmin mechanism

tetanus toxin: cleave SNARE protein to prevent GABA hence no inhibition and muscles spasm

57

botulinum toxin mechanism

Cleave SNARE for prevention of ACh release (stimulatory)

58

alpha toxin (clostridum perfinges) mechanism

phospholipase that degrades tissue and cell membranes

59

Streptolysin O (strep pyogenes) mechanism

degrades cell membrane

60

Toxic shock syndromes toxin (TSST-1) -S. aureus: mechanism

super antigen: brings MHC II and and TCR together causing hella INF-gama and IL-2

61

Exotoxin A (strep pyogenes) mech

super antigen: brings MHC II and and TCR together causing hella INF-gama and IL-2

62

Endotoxin effects

ENDOTOXIN: Edema, Nitric oxide, DIC/Death, Outermembrane, TNF-alpha, O-antigen, Xtremely heath stable, IL-1, Neutrophil chemotaxis

63

catalase + and coagulase + gram +

S. aureus

64

gram +, catalase +, coagulase -

Staph epideridis (novobiocin sen), staph saprophyticus (novobiocin resistant)

65

gram +, catalase -

Strep

66

how does S auerus make an abscess?

it has coagulase which lets it make a protective clot around itself

67

gram + cocci clusters

staph

68

gram + cocci chains

strep

69

staph aureus toxins

Protein A (binds Fc of IgG) and TSST-1 (super antigen) and enterotoxin causing rapid food posioning (MAYO)

70

why is MRSA so bad?

beta-lactam resistant do to altered penicillin-binding protein

71

Staph epidermidis

normal skin flora, infects prosthetics and catheters by producting biofilms. contaminates blood cultures

72

lancet-shaped gram-positive diplococci

strep pneumo

73

strep pneumo causes what most commonly

#1 cause of MOPS: Meningitis, Otitis media (children), Pneumonia, Sinusitis

74

rusty sputum

strep pneumo

75

sepsis in sickle cell/splenectomy

strep pneumo

76

special about strep pneumo capsule (2 thangs)

contains IgA protease, and no virulence w/o capsule

77

optochin sensitive

strep pneumo

78

endocarditis to damaged valves

strep sangis (virdians)

79

dental carries bacteria

strep mutans (vidirians group)

80

ASO titer tests for?

recent strep pyogenes infxn

81

what is group A strep?

strep pyogenes

82

three classes of effects of strep pyogenes

(Group A strep)
-Pyogenic: pharyngitis, cellulitis, impetigo
-Toxigenic: scarlet fever, toxic shock-like syndrome, necrotizing fasciitis
-Immunologic- rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis

83

Rheumatic fever

JONES: Joints,

84

Scarlet fever

Group A strep. Scarlet rash sparing face, strawberry/scarlet tongue, scarlet throat

85

Group B strep name and distinguishing feature

strep agalatiae, B is for BABIES

86

group b strep pregnancy prophylaxis

penicillin

87

what is group D strep?

enterococci

88

resistance and growth conditions of group D strep

ALL are penicillin G resist, some are vancomycin resistant. grow in 6.5% NaCl and bile

89

most famous group D strep member

strep bovis

90

group d/ bovis in the blood means

colon cancer

91

typical group d strep infxns

UTI, biliary tract infxn, endocarditis

92

black colonies on cystine-tellurite agar

corynebacterium diphtheriae

93

what is diptheriae toxin encoded by?

beta-prophage

94

pseudomembranous pharyngitis (gray-white membrane)

diptheriae (exotoxin induced)

95

gram-positive club shapped rods with metachromatic (blue and red) granules

diphtheriae

96

core of spores

dipicolinic acid

97

spore forming bacteria

bacillus anthracis, clostridium perfings, c. tetani, b. cereus, c. botulinum, coxiella burnetti

98

clostridum tetani

makes tetenospasmin which blocks GABA release from Renshaw cells in spinal chord

99

clostridium botulinum

spores typically found in honey and canned food. adults get it via exotoxin ingestion. blocks ACh release

100

clostridium perfingens

produces "alpha toxin" which is a lecithinase and causes myonecrosis (gas gangrene)

101

C. diff

produces two toxins. A: binds brush boarder. B: destroys cytoskeletal structure of enterocytes and causes the psuedomembranous colitis

102

diarrhea after prolonged ampicillin or clindamycin use

C. diff

103

how to treat c diff

metronidazole or oral vancomycin

104

only bacteria with a polypeptide capsule

anthrax

105

black eschar (painless) surrounded by edematous ring

cutaneous anthrax . caused by edema factor and lethal factor

106

pulmonary anthrax

inhalation of spores (classically from wool) causing rapidly progressive flu with pulm hemorrhage

107

bacillus cereus

from reheated rice. toxin- cereulide

108

listeria sources

milk, cheese, deli meat, vagina

109

amniotic granulomatosis or meningitis in fetus

listeria

110

listeria treatment

ampicillin

111

two bacteria types that have branching structure like fungi

actinomyces and nocardia

112

actinomyces normal location and treatment

normal oral flora. penicillin

113

nocardia normal location, presentation, and treatment

soil, pulm infxn and cutaenous infxn. treat with sulfonamides

114

mycobacteria chord factor

inhibits macrophage maturation and causes TNF-a release

115

mycobacteria surface sulfatides

inhibits phagolysosomal fusion

116

staining and distinctive feature about Leprosy

it is acid-fast (mycobacteria) and likes cool temperatures

117

leprosy reservoir in the US

armadillos

118

lepromatous vs tuberculoid leprosy

lepromatous is letal and wide spread and Th2
tuberculoid is localized and has a Th1 response

119

leprosy treatment

dapsone and rifampin for 6 months (tuberculoid) or that plus clofazimine for 2+ years for lepromatous form

120

loss of eyebrows, nasal collapse, lumpy earlobe

leprosy face

121

gram - diplococci

Neisseria men and gon

122

gram - coccoid rods

H flu, Bordetella pertussis

123

gram - oxidase + comma shaped

cholera and campylobacter jejuni

124

gram - rods

klebsiella, E. coli, serratia, shigella, salmonella, proteus, pseudomonas, h pylori

125

Neisseria meningococci prophylaxis

vaccine, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, or ceftriaxone

126

which neisseria ferments maltose?

meningococci (both ferment glucose)

127

treatment for Neisseria gonococci

ceftriaxone + azithromycin for chlamydia coinfxn

128

treatment for neisseria meningococci

ceftriaxone or penicillin G

129

H flu causes?

eMOPS (kinda like MOP for strep pneumo): Epiglottitis (cherry red tongue), Meningitis, Otitis media, Pneumonia

130

H flu growth conditions

chocolate agar, needs factor V and X

131

H flu treamtent

ceftriaxone and rifampin for prophalax (vaccine available)

132

Legionella causes what and from what?

pneumonia, fever, GI, CNS symptoms. from Aerosol transmission for water source (not person to person)

133

Legionella growth conditions and stain

gram - but weak, so silver stain it. grows on charcoal yeast extract with iron and cysteine

134

legionella treatment

macrolide or quinolone

135

burn wound infxn

pseudomonas

136

pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

pseudomonas

137

black lesions on skin

anthrax or pseudomonas

138

hot tub folliculitis

pseudomonas

139

drug use/diabetic osteomyelitis

pseudomonas

140

pseudomonas toxins

endotoxin (fever/shock), exotoxin A (EF2 inhib), blue-green pigment that smells like grapes (cool)

141

pseudomonas treatment

aminoglycoside plus extended spectrum penicillin

142

E. coli virulence factors

fimbriae- cystitis and pyelonephritis
k capsule - penumonia, neonatal meningitis
LPS - septic shock

143

red currant jelly sputum

Klebsiella

144

klebsiella gram stain and consequence

gram -. 4A's : Aspiration Pneumonia, Abscess in lungs/liver, Alcoholics, diAbetics

145

salmonella motility, spread, reservoirs, symptoms

flagella allow for heme spread, multiple animals carry, produce bloody diarrhea with smelly farts, monocytic response

146

shigella motility, spread, reservoirs, symptoms, immune reponse

no flagella so must spread cell by cell, humans are only reservoir, bloody diarrhea but not smell farts (no HS), PMN response

147

extreme diarrhea, headache, fever, rose spots on abdomen

typhoid fever (salmonella typhi)

148

latantcy of typoid fever

can remain in gallbladder as a carrier state

149

comma shaped/s shaped oxidase positive gram - that grows at 42C

campylobacter jejuni

150

what does campylobacter jejuni cause?

bloody diarrhea in kids, and major cause of Guillan-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis

151

campylobacter jejuni sources

poultry, meat, unpasteurized milk

152

rice water diarrhea, endemic

vibrio cholerae

153

comma shaped, oxidase positive gram - that grows in alkaline media

cholera

154

how does cholera happen what do you do?

toxin activates Gs to increase cAMP. oral rehydration (gatorade)

155

90% of duodenal ulcers

h pylori (also almost all gastric ulcers)

156

curved gram negative rod urease positive

h pylori

157

h pylori treatment

proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, amoxicillin/metronidazole

158

flu, jaundice, photophobia, conjunctivitis in surfer

Leptospira interrrogans (found in animal urine contaminated water)

159

transmited by Ixodes

borrelia burgdorferi (lymes) and Babesia

160

Lyme disease natural history

stage 1: expanding bulls eye rash, flu
stage 2: neurological (facial nerve palsy) and cardiac (AV block)
stage 3: musculoskeletal (polyarthritis), encepthalopathy, and cutaneous sxm

161

Lyme disease treatment

doxycycline, ceftriaxone

162

what causes syphilis and how do you treat?

treponema pallidum. Penicillin G

163

primary syphilis

localized disease. painless chancre. screen with VDRL then confirm with FTA-ABS

164

secondary syphilis

disseminated disease. maculopapular rash (palms/soles), condylomata lata.

165

how to visualize syphilis

dark field microscopy

166

tertiary syphilis

chronic granulomas, aortitis, neurosyphilis(tabes dorsalis), Argyll Robertson pupil, broad-based ataxia, romberg positive, charcot join, stroke. test spinal fluid for VDRL

167

argyll robertson pupil

accomidates but not light reactive (prostitutes hate light)

168

saber shins, saddle nose, deafness, hutchinsons teeth, mulberry molars

Congential syphilis (must treat cause it transmits in 1st trimester)

169

VDRL test for and false positive

tests for nonspecific antibodies (beef cardiolipin). used for syphilis screen. false pos VDRL: Viruses (mono,hep), Drugs, Rheumatic fever, Lupus/Leprosy

170

Jarisch-Herxheimers reaction

following antibiotic use, dead bacteria release pyrogens causing fever

171

fishy pussy with gray discharge

Gardnerella vaginalis

172

clue cells

vaginal epithelial cells covered with bacteria (gardenlla vaginalis)

173

gardnerella vaginalis treatment

metronidazole

174

rash on your palms and soles

use your palms and soles to drive CARS: Coxsackievirus A, Rocky Mountain fever (rickettsia), Syphilis

175

treatment for all Rickettsial infxns

doxycycline

176

rickettia rickettsii vs typus

(R)ickettsii starts on wRists and palms
Typus on Trunk

177

what can't chlamydiae make?

ATP (obligate intracellular)

178

what does chlamydiae cell wall lack?

muramic acid

179

two forms of chlamydiae?

-Elementary body (small dense) enfect cells via endocytosis
-Reticulate body replicates by fission

180

chlamydia causes

reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, urethritits, and PID

181

walk pneumonia

mycoplasma pneumonae

182

walking pneumonia treatmetn

macrolide or fluoroquinolone

183

cat scratch

bartonella

184

louse

borrelia recurrentis (recurrent fever)

185

unpasteurized dairy

brucella

186

puppies, livestock, undercooked meat

campylobacter

187

parrots

chlamydophila psittaci

188

aerososls of cattle/sheep amniotic fluid

coxiella

189

lone star tick

ehrlichia chaffeensis

190

deer fly, ticks, rabbits

francisella