Histology Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology1 > Histology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Histology Deck (84):
1

what are the primary tissues types?

Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue(blood/bone), Muscle Tissues, Nervous Tissue

2

what does the Epithelial Tissue do?

covers body tissues, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, which forms glands
allows interaction between internal and external environment

3

what does Connective tissue do?

protects and supports the body and its organs
stores fats
help against disease-causing organisms
binds other tissues together
fills in space

4

what does muscular tissue do?

shortens to produce movement and generates heat

5

what does nervous tissue do?

detects condition change inside/outside the body
responds by generating electrical/chemical signals that activates muscle contraction and glandular secretion

6

most superior layer of epithelial tissue

apical surface

7

basement layer of epithelial tissue

basale surface

8

which tissue type has the most mitosis?

epithelial tissue

9

functions of epithelial tissue?

protects underlying structures
synthesizes substances
secretes substances
absorbs substances

10

is epithelial tissue vascular

NO - no blood vessels - relies of diffusion

11

what does epithelium do?

covers external surface (epidermis)
lines internal cavities (blood vessel walls)
glandular epitheliim

12

what is glandular epithelium composed of

parenchyma (functional part that secretes)

13

what is a gland

secreting structure composed of one or more cells
either endocrine or exocrine

14

what does endocrine glands do?

secrete hormones

15

what does thyroid gland secrete?

thyroxin

16

what does pancreas secrete?

insulin

17

what does the ovaries secret

estrogens

18

what does the testes secrete?

testosterone

19

what does exocrine glads do?

secrete to external surface (sweat), or into cavity that eventually leads to outside the body (salivary glands)

20

what are lacrimal glands?

secrete to anterior surface of the eye (tears)

21

salivary glands secrete to?

oral cavity

22

mucous glands secrete mucus to?

mucous membrane

23

pancreas secrete pancreatic juice to?

the lumen of small intestine

24

the thin bottom layer closes to secretion is called?

basal lamina

25

the layer closes to underlying connective tissue is called?

reticular lamina

26

where does endocrine glands secrete to?

into blood or fluid

27

where does exocrine glands secrete to?

into cavities that lead to outside the body

28

what is the matrix composed of?

fibers and ground substances

29

what are the characteristics of connective tissue?

cells separated by extracellular materials, matrix, structure varies

30

what are the cells in connective tissue?

fibroblasts, mast cells, plasma cells, adipocytes, macrophages

31

what does fibroblast do?

produce fibers and ground substances

32

what does mast cells do?

produce histamine

33

what does macrophages do?

engolf substances

34

what does plasma cells do?

produce antibodies

35

what does adipose called do?

stores fats

36

what is ground substances consist of?

hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, ketatan sulfate, fibronectin

37

what does hyaluronic acid do?

the glue, binds cell together, viscous

38

what does chrondritin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and ketatan sulfate do?

traps water, supports cartilage, bone, skin, blood vessels and heart valves

39

what does fibronectin do?

links components of ground substance together

40

what is fibronectin?

adhesive protein

41

what are the types of fibers?

collagen, elastic, reticular

42

Collagens are produced by?

fibroblasts

43

what is the most abundant protein in the body?

collagen protein

44

what does collagen fibers do?

strong, resist pulling forces, gives strength to bone, tendons, skin, blood vessels

45

what is elastic fibers composed of?

Elastin

46

where are elastic fibers found?

aorta, large arteries, lungs

47

what are reticular fibers composed of?

collagen protein

48

what does reticular fibers do?

forms supporting framework of organs

49

what are the functions of connective tissue?

support, protect, storage, repair

50

what are the types of connective tissue?

loose, dense, cartilage, bone, blood

51

what are the types of loose connective tissue?

Areolar, Adipose, Reticular

52

what are the characteristics of loose connective tissue?

more fluid than cells and fibers

53

what are the types of dense connective tissue?

dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, dense elastic connective tissue

54

what is the characteristic of dense connective tissue?

densely packed fibers

55

Dense regular connective tissue can withstand ___ force.

axial

56

dense irregular connective tissue can withstand forces from ______.

many directions

57

characteristics of elastic connective tissue

branching elastic fibers, dense, recoils to original shape after stretching

58

what are the types of cartilage?

hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage

59

what is cartilage?

chondrocytes surrounded by variable matrix

60

in hyaline cartilage what is the sacs called that are surrounding the chondrocytes?

lacuna

61

what does lacuna do?

acts as a buffer around hyaline cartilage (very slippery)

62

what is the function of bones?

to support, protect, storage, blood cell production

63

cells in bones are called?

osteocyte

64

what is the function of blood?

to transport (gases, nutrients, hormones, and waste)

65

what type of cartilage is mostly present in the body?

hyaline cartilage

66

what is a membrane?

pliable layer of epithelial and connective tissue

67

what are the types of membranes?

epithelial and synovial

68

what are the types of epithelial membrane?

mucous membrane (mucosa), serous membrane (serosa), cutaneous membrane (skin)

69

what does the mucous membrane do?

lines open cavities (lungs, nose, mouth, stomach, small intestines) and secrete

70

what are the functions of the mucous membrane?

absorption, secretion, protection

71

serous membrane is composed of 2 layers called?

parietal layer (lines closed cavities)
visceral layer (covers outer surface of the organ)

72

what does the serous membrane do?

secrete serous fluid, reduce friction

73

what are the type of serous membrane?

pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), peritoneum (abdomen)

74

what does the visceral pleura cover?

cover the outer surface of the lungs

75

what does the parietal pleura cover?

lines the thoracic cavity

76

what is the pleural cavity?

space between visceral and parietal pleura

77

forms a sac around the heart

parietal layer

78

covers the outer surface of the heart

visceral layer

79

covers many abdominal organs

visceral peritoneum

80

lines much of the abdominal cavity

parietal peritoneum

81

what are the types of synovial membrane?

articular synovial membrane, bursae, and tendon sheaths

82

what does articular synovial membrane do?

lines synovial joint cavity

83

what does Bursae do?

cushion between soft tissues and bones

84

what does tendon sheaths do?

surround and protect tendons from too much friction