Flashcards in Histology Deck (84):
what are the primary tissues types?
Epithelial Tissue, Connective Tissue(blood/bone), Muscle Tissues, Nervous Tissue
what does the Epithelial Tissue do?
covers body tissues, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, which forms glands
allows interaction between internal and external environment
what does Connective tissue do?
protects and supports the body and its organs
help against disease-causing organisms
binds other tissues together
fills in space
what does muscular tissue do?
shortens to produce movement and generates heat
what does nervous tissue do?
detects condition change inside/outside the body
responds by generating electrical/chemical signals that activates muscle contraction and glandular secretion
most superior layer of epithelial tissue
basement layer of epithelial tissue
which tissue type has the most mitosis?
functions of epithelial tissue?
protects underlying structures
is epithelial tissue vascular
NO - no blood vessels - relies of diffusion
what does epithelium do?
covers external surface (epidermis)
lines internal cavities (blood vessel walls)
what is glandular epithelium composed of
parenchyma (functional part that secretes)
what is a gland
secreting structure composed of one or more cells
either endocrine or exocrine
what does endocrine glands do?
what does thyroid gland secrete?
what does pancreas secrete?
what does the ovaries secret
what does the testes secrete?
what does exocrine glads do?
secrete to external surface (sweat), or into cavity that eventually leads to outside the body (salivary glands)
what are lacrimal glands?
secrete to anterior surface of the eye (tears)
salivary glands secrete to?
mucous glands secrete mucus to?
pancreas secrete pancreatic juice to?
the lumen of small intestine
the thin bottom layer closes to secretion is called?
the layer closes to underlying connective tissue is called?
where does endocrine glands secrete to?
into blood or fluid
where does exocrine glands secrete to?
into cavities that lead to outside the body
what is the matrix composed of?
fibers and ground substances
what are the characteristics of connective tissue?
cells separated by extracellular materials, matrix, structure varies
what are the cells in connective tissue?
fibroblasts, mast cells, plasma cells, adipocytes, macrophages
what does fibroblast do?
produce fibers and ground substances
what does mast cells do?
what does macrophages do?
what does plasma cells do?
what does adipose called do?
what is ground substances consist of?
hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, ketatan sulfate, fibronectin
what does hyaluronic acid do?
the glue, binds cell together, viscous
what does chrondritin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and ketatan sulfate do?
traps water, supports cartilage, bone, skin, blood vessels and heart valves
what does fibronectin do?
links components of ground substance together
what is fibronectin?
what are the types of fibers?
collagen, elastic, reticular
Collagens are produced by?
what is the most abundant protein in the body?
what does collagen fibers do?
strong, resist pulling forces, gives strength to bone, tendons, skin, blood vessels
what is elastic fibers composed of?
where are elastic fibers found?
aorta, large arteries, lungs
what are reticular fibers composed of?
what does reticular fibers do?
forms supporting framework of organs
what are the functions of connective tissue?
support, protect, storage, repair
what are the types of connective tissue?
loose, dense, cartilage, bone, blood
what are the types of loose connective tissue?
Areolar, Adipose, Reticular
what are the characteristics of loose connective tissue?
more fluid than cells and fibers
what are the types of dense connective tissue?
dense regular connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, dense elastic connective tissue
what is the characteristic of dense connective tissue?
densely packed fibers
Dense regular connective tissue can withstand ___ force.
dense irregular connective tissue can withstand forces from ______.
characteristics of elastic connective tissue
branching elastic fibers, dense, recoils to original shape after stretching
what are the types of cartilage?
hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, elastic cartilage
what is cartilage?
chondrocytes surrounded by variable matrix
in hyaline cartilage what is the sacs called that are surrounding the chondrocytes?
what does lacuna do?
acts as a buffer around hyaline cartilage (very slippery)
what is the function of bones?
to support, protect, storage, blood cell production
cells in bones are called?
what is the function of blood?
to transport (gases, nutrients, hormones, and waste)
what type of cartilage is mostly present in the body?
what is a membrane?
pliable layer of epithelial and connective tissue
what are the types of membranes?
epithelial and synovial
what are the types of epithelial membrane?
mucous membrane (mucosa), serous membrane (serosa), cutaneous membrane (skin)
what does the mucous membrane do?
lines open cavities (lungs, nose, mouth, stomach, small intestines) and secrete
what are the functions of the mucous membrane?
absorption, secretion, protection
serous membrane is composed of 2 layers called?
parietal layer (lines closed cavities)
visceral layer (covers outer surface of the organ)
what does the serous membrane do?
secrete serous fluid, reduce friction
what are the type of serous membrane?
pleura (lungs), pericardium (heart), peritoneum (abdomen)
what does the visceral pleura cover?
cover the outer surface of the lungs
what does the parietal pleura cover?
lines the thoracic cavity
what is the pleural cavity?
space between visceral and parietal pleura
forms a sac around the heart
covers the outer surface of the heart
covers many abdominal organs
lines much of the abdominal cavity
what are the types of synovial membrane?
articular synovial membrane, bursae, and tendon sheaths
what does articular synovial membrane do?
lines synovial joint cavity
what does Bursae do?
cushion between soft tissues and bones