Flashcards in Skeletal Deck (74):
what tissues compose the skeletal system?
cartilage, nerve, dense connective, epithelium, adipose, bone tissue, blood forming tissue
what are the function of bones?
storage, structure, protection, shape, mobility, blood formation, supports
name the parts of the outer bone regions
proximal epiphysis, metaphysis, disaphysis, metaphysis, distal epiphysis
name the parts of the inner bone
articular cartilage, epiphyseal line, spongy bone, compact bone, endosteum, periosteum, nutrient artery, medullary cavity
what is the study of bone and the treatment of bone structure called?
in a growing bone the metaphysis contains?
what is the epiphyseal plate a layer of?
the articular cartilage is composed of _____ which lacks _____ and ____ therefore ____ is limited
hyaline cartilage, perichondondrium, blood vessels, repair
what is periosteum
layer of tough connective tissue therefore the blood supply
the inner layer of periosteum is? what is the inner layer called?
celles - osteogenic layer
the outer layer of periosteum is? what is the outer layer called?
dense irregular tissue - fibrous layer
what is the medullary cavity composed of?
fatty yellow bone marrow and blood vessels
why is bone considered connective tissue?
because it is cells separated by a hard matrix
what are the cells of the bone?
osteogenic, osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast
what are the characteristics of osteogenic calls?
1. stems cells that come from mesenchyme 2. only bone cell to divid into itself or osteoblasts
where are osteogenic cells found?
under periosteum and endosteum
what are the characteristics of osteoblasts?
1. bone building cells 2. synthesizes and secrete collagen fibers, organic compound (matrix), initiates calcification 3. they cannot divide
where are osteoblasts found?
under periosteum and endosteum
when does osteoblast turn into osteocytes?
when they get trapped in their matrix called lacunae
what is the histology of bone?
connective tisse separated by hard matrix
what does osteocytes do?
maintain bone tissue but cannot divide
what are the characteristics of osteoclasts?
1. formed from WBC 2. found under endostreum and periosteum 3. secretes enzymes and acids to break down matrix
what are the functions of osteoclasts?
growth, break down matrix, repair, maintaining, remodelling
how does bone cells get oxygen and nutrients from blood?
through interstitial fluid
what is the bone matrix composed of?
15% water, 30 % organic matrix (collagen fibers), 55% inorganic matrix (mineral salt)
what is mineralization?
hardening of tissue when mineral crystals deposit around collagen fibers
what are the characteristics of compact bone?
solid hard layer of bone, makes up shaft of hard bone and outer layer of all bones, resists stress, composed of osteons
what is the lamella?
concentric rings surrounding a haversian canal
what is a haversian canal?
spaces in lamella that contains vessels, nerves that supplies oxygen and nutrients
each lamella have small spaces called? which contain?
lacunae, which contain osteocytes surrounded by ECF
what connects osteocytes?
canalicili containing ECF
each haversian canal is connected by?
spongy bone can also be called?
where is spongy bone oriented?
along lines of stress
what are spaces between trabeculae filled with?
red bone marrow
where are spongy bones found?
on ends of long bones and flat bones
what bones contain red bone marrow?
flat bones = sternum, pelvis, ribs and cranial bones, proximal humerus, proximal femur
what types of ossification are there?
1. intramembranous bone formation 2. endochondral bone formation
what are the steps of intramembranous bone formation?
1. ossification center (mesenchymal cells -> osteogenic cells -> osteoblasts=secrete matrix) 2.calcification (osteoblasts trapped in matrix called osteocyte, extends; canaliculi, mineral salt and calcium hardens) 3. formation of trabeculae (bone matrix forms trabeculae around blood vessels, connective tissue associated with blood vessels forms redbone marrow) 4. developement of periosteum (mesenchymal cells forms periosteum, and superficial layer of spongy bone forms compact bone)
what are the steps in endochondral formation?
1. development of cartilage (mesenchymal cells develop chondroblasts -> cartilage model) 2. grown of cartilage model (cell division of chondroblasts) 3. primary ossification (bone replace cartilage) 4. medullary cavity (osteoblast create medullary cavity) 5. second ossification 6. articular cartilage (1.hyaline cartilage covering epiphysis forms articular cartilage, 2. trapped cartilage form epiphyseal plate)
what two events occur when growth in length happens in a bone?
1. cartilage grows on epiphyseal side of plate 2. cartilage replaced by bone on diaphyseal side of epiphyseal plate
what are the 4 zones in bone growth?
1. zone of resting cartilage 2. zone of proliferating cartilage 3. zone of hypertonic cartilage 4. zone of calcified cartilage
what occurs in the resting zone?
anchors plate to bone
what occurs in zone of proliferating cartilage?
rapid cell division in stacks, secreting of matrix by chondrocytes
what occurs in zone of hypertrophic cartilage?
cells remain in stack but larger
what occurs in zone of calcified cartilage?
thin layer, matrix calcified; dead cells, osteoclasts removes matrix, osteoblasts and capillaries move in, osteoblast secrete matrix creates bone of calcified cartilage
at what age does epiphysel plate close?
what are the functions of the vertebral column?
protect spinal cord, flexibility, support, attachment of muscles
how many vertebrae are in the vertebral column?
name the spinal vertebrae?
cervical 7, thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacrum 1(5), coccyx 1(4)
of the vertebral column, which ones are primary curve?
of the vertebral colunm, which ones are secondary curves and when does it occur?
cervical at 4 months (when baby raises head), lumbar at 1 year ( when baby starts to walk)
what is the intervertebral discs composed of?
fibrocartilage ring, with pulpy centre
where are intervertebral discs located?
C2 - L5
what is intervertebral discs good for?
absorbing vertebral shock and gives flexibility
what are the parts of the sternum?
1. manubrium 2. body 3. xiphoid process
Characteristics of male pelvis
Heart shaped inlet, heavier bone, <90o pubic arch, long/narrow sacrum, narrow outlet
Characteristics of female pelvis
Lighter bone, oval inlet, broader outlet, short wide sacrum, >90o pubic arch
What is a joint?
Point of contact between 2 bones, cartilage and bone, tooth and bone
Functional characteristics of joints?
Freely moveable, immoveable, slightly moveable
Structural characteristics of joints?
1. space between bone 2. connective tissue holding togerther
what types of joints are there?
Fibrous joint, cartilaginous joint, synovial joint
Characteristics of fibrous joint?
Little or movement, dense irregular connective tissue (collagen fibers)
What are the types of fibrous joints?
1. suture (skull)2. Syndesmoses (holds fibula to tibia)3. Interosseous membrane (between fibula and tibia)
Characteristics of cartilaginous joint?
Little to no movement, connected by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage
Types of cartilaginous joints?
1. synchondroses (epiphyseal plate) 2. Symphyses (pubic symphysis)
what is another name for immovable?
what is another name for slightly moveable?
what is another name for moveable?
characteristics of synovial joint?
freely moveable, articular cartilage separated by synovial cavity lined by synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid, ligament holding bone together
characteristics of synovial fluid?
lubricant, secreted by membrane, composed of interstitial fluid and hyaluronic aid, supplies nutrients and removes waste
what are the accessory ligaments?
extracapsular ligament (lateral/medial collateral ligament), intracapsular ligament (anterior cruciate ligament)
what are articular disc/meniscus?
attaches around edges of capsule to allow to bones of different shape to lay closely together which increases stability