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Anatomy and Physiology1 > Skeletal > Flashcards

Flashcards in Skeletal Deck (74):
1

what tissues compose the skeletal system?

cartilage, nerve, dense connective, epithelium, adipose, bone tissue, blood forming tissue

2

what are the function of bones?

storage, structure, protection, shape, mobility, blood formation, supports

3

name the parts of the outer bone regions

proximal epiphysis, metaphysis, disaphysis, metaphysis, distal epiphysis

4

name the parts of the inner bone

articular cartilage, epiphyseal line, spongy bone, compact bone, endosteum, periosteum, nutrient artery, medullary cavity

5

what is the study of bone and the treatment of bone structure called?

osteology

6

in a growing bone the metaphysis contains?

epiphyseal plate

7

what is the epiphyseal plate a layer of?

Hyaline cartilage

8

the articular cartilage is composed of _____ which lacks _____ and ____ therefore ____ is limited

hyaline cartilage, perichondondrium, blood vessels, repair

9

what is periosteum

layer of tough connective tissue therefore the blood supply

10

the inner layer of periosteum is? what is the inner layer called?

celles - osteogenic layer

11

the outer layer of periosteum is? what is the outer layer called?

dense irregular tissue - fibrous layer

12

what is the medullary cavity composed of?

fatty yellow bone marrow and blood vessels

13

why is bone considered connective tissue?

because it is cells separated by a hard matrix

14

what are the cells of the bone?

osteogenic, osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast

15

what are the characteristics of osteogenic calls?

1. stems cells that come from mesenchyme 2. only bone cell to divid into itself or osteoblasts

16

where are osteogenic cells found?

under periosteum and endosteum

17

what are the characteristics of osteoblasts?

1. bone building cells 2. synthesizes and secrete collagen fibers, organic compound (matrix), initiates calcification 3. they cannot divide

18

where are osteoblasts found?

under periosteum and endosteum

19

when does osteoblast turn into osteocytes?

when they get trapped in their matrix called lacunae

20

what is the histology of bone?

connective tisse separated by hard matrix

21

what does osteocytes do?

maintain bone tissue but cannot divide

22

what are the characteristics of osteoclasts?

1. formed from WBC 2. found under endostreum and periosteum 3. secretes enzymes and acids to break down matrix

23

what are the functions of osteoclasts?

growth, break down matrix, repair, maintaining, remodelling

24

how does bone cells get oxygen and nutrients from blood?

through interstitial fluid

25

what is the bone matrix composed of?

15% water, 30 % organic matrix (collagen fibers), 55% inorganic matrix (mineral salt)

26

what is mineralization?

hardening of tissue when mineral crystals deposit around collagen fibers

27

what are the characteristics of compact bone?

solid hard layer of bone, makes up shaft of hard bone and outer layer of all bones, resists stress, composed of osteons

28

what is the lamella?

concentric rings surrounding a haversian canal

29

what is a haversian canal?

spaces in lamella that contains vessels, nerves that supplies oxygen and nutrients

30

each lamella have small spaces called? which contain?

lacunae, which contain osteocytes surrounded by ECF

31

what connects osteocytes?

canalicili containing ECF

32

each haversian canal is connected by?

Volkmann's canal

33

spongy bone can also be called?

trabeculae

34

where is spongy bone oriented?

along lines of stress

35

what are spaces between trabeculae filled with?

red bone marrow

36

where are spongy bones found?

on ends of long bones and flat bones

37

what bones contain red bone marrow?

flat bones = sternum, pelvis, ribs and cranial bones, proximal humerus, proximal femur

38

what types of ossification are there?

1. intramembranous bone formation 2. endochondral bone formation

39

what are the steps of intramembranous bone formation?

1. ossification center (mesenchymal cells -> osteogenic cells -> osteoblasts=secrete matrix) 2.calcification (osteoblasts trapped in matrix called osteocyte, extends; canaliculi, mineral salt and calcium hardens) 3. formation of trabeculae (bone matrix forms trabeculae around blood vessels, connective tissue associated with blood vessels forms redbone marrow) 4. developement of periosteum (mesenchymal cells forms periosteum, and superficial layer of spongy bone forms compact bone)

40

what are the steps in endochondral formation?

1. development of cartilage (mesenchymal cells develop chondroblasts -> cartilage model) 2. grown of cartilage model (cell division of chondroblasts) 3. primary ossification (bone replace cartilage) 4. medullary cavity (osteoblast create medullary cavity) 5. second ossification 6. articular cartilage (1.hyaline cartilage covering epiphysis forms articular cartilage, 2. trapped cartilage form epiphyseal plate)

41

what two events occur when growth in length happens in a bone?

1. cartilage grows on epiphyseal side of plate 2. cartilage replaced by bone on diaphyseal side of epiphyseal plate

42

what are the 4 zones in bone growth?

1. zone of resting cartilage 2. zone of proliferating cartilage 3. zone of hypertonic cartilage 4. zone of calcified cartilage

43

what occurs in the resting zone?

anchors plate to bone

44

what occurs in zone of proliferating cartilage?

rapid cell division in stacks, secreting of matrix by chondrocytes

45

what occurs in zone of hypertrophic cartilage?

cells remain in stack but larger

46

what occurs in zone of calcified cartilage?

thin layer, matrix calcified; dead cells, osteoclasts removes matrix, osteoblasts and capillaries move in, osteoblast secrete matrix creates bone of calcified cartilage

47

at what age does epiphysel plate close?

18-25

48

what are the functions of the vertebral column?

protect spinal cord, flexibility, support, attachment of muscles

49

how many vertebrae are in the vertebral column?

26

50

name the spinal vertebrae?

cervical 7, thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacrum 1(5), coccyx 1(4)

51

of the vertebral column, which ones are primary curve?

thoracic, sacral

52

of the vertebral colunm, which ones are secondary curves and when does it occur?

cervical at 4 months (when baby raises head), lumbar at 1 year ( when baby starts to walk)

53

what is the intervertebral discs composed of?

fibrocartilage ring, with pulpy centre

54

where are intervertebral discs located?

C2 - L5

55

what is intervertebral discs good for?

absorbing vertebral shock and gives flexibility

56

what are the parts of the sternum?

1. manubrium 2. body 3. xiphoid process

57

Characteristics of male pelvis

Heart shaped inlet, heavier bone, <90o pubic arch, long/narrow sacrum, narrow outlet

58

Characteristics of female pelvis

Lighter bone, oval inlet, broader outlet, short wide sacrum, >90o pubic arch

59

What is a joint?

Point of contact between 2 bones, cartilage and bone, tooth and bone

60

Functional characteristics of joints?

Freely moveable, immoveable, slightly moveable

61

Structural characteristics of joints?

1. space between bone 2. connective tissue holding togerther

62

what types of joints are there?

Fibrous joint, cartilaginous joint, synovial joint

63

Characteristics of fibrous joint?

Little or movement, dense irregular connective tissue (collagen fibers)

64

What are the types of fibrous joints?

1. suture (skull)2. Syndesmoses (holds fibula to tibia)3. Interosseous membrane (between fibula and tibia)

65

Characteristics of cartilaginous joint?

Little to no movement, connected by fibrocartilage and hyaline cartilage

66

Types of cartilaginous joints?

1. synchondroses (epiphyseal plate) 2. Symphyses (pubic symphysis)

67

what is another name for immovable?

synarthrosis

68

what is another name for slightly moveable?

amphiarthrosis

69

what is another name for moveable?

diarthrosis

70

characteristics of synovial joint?

freely moveable, articular cartilage separated by synovial cavity lined by synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid, ligament holding bone together

71

characteristics of synovial fluid?

lubricant, secreted by membrane, composed of interstitial fluid and hyaluronic aid, supplies nutrients and removes waste

72

what are the accessory ligaments?

extracapsular ligament (lateral/medial collateral ligament), intracapsular ligament (anterior cruciate ligament)

73

what are articular disc/meniscus?

attaches around edges of capsule to allow to bones of different shape to lay closely together which increases stability

74

what are bursae?

sacs of synovial fluid in membranes to reduce tension