Homeostasis; Fluid and Electrolytes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Homeostasis; Fluid and Electrolytes Deck (45):
1

homeonestais of ____ depends on homeostasis of the body fluids and ________

cells, electrolytes

2

what is water fluids?

all water and dissolved substances in the body fluid compartment

3

what percentage of the body is water?

60%

4

mechanisms of fluids are regulated by?

total volume, distribution, concentration of solutes, and pH

5

what percentage of fluids are in females?

55%

6

what percentage of fluids are in males?

60%

7

what percentage of solids are in females?

45%

8

what percentage of solids are in males?

40%

9

where are the largest amount of fluids located in the body?

inside cells (cytoplasm)

10

what are the body's fluid compartments?

intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid - interstitial fluid (transcellular) and intravascular (blood)

11

of the body's 60% of fluid how much is intracellular and how much is extracellular?

intra - 40%, extra - 20%

12

of the extracellulars 20%, how much is the interstitual fluid?

16% and 4% plasma

13

what ions are located in the intracellular fluids?

Large amounts of K+, protein, small amounts of Cl-, Na+

14

what ions are located in the extracellular fluid?

Large amount of NA+, Cl-, HCO3-, small amounts of K+

15

what ion are in the intravascular fluid?

Large amounts of protein, NA+, Cl-, small amounts of HCO3-, K+

16

between ICF and insterstitial fluid how is transport done?

water = osmosis, sodium potassium pump= active transport, waste/nutrients/gases = diffusion

17

what controls fluid balance in the body?

thirst mechanism, ADH, reinin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

18

describe thrist mechanism

drop in saliva, increase in blood osmolarity, drop in blood volume

19

what is the name of the hormone that is released by the heart?

ANP - atrial natriuretic peptide

20

what does ANP do?

lowers secretion of renin in kidneys

21

what does Edema mean?

too much fluid in interstitial space

22

how many litres at in the body and how much do we produce every day?

5L, 3L

23

what causes edema?

increase venous pressure, lymphatic obstruction, inflammation, hypoproteinemia

24

what is electrolytes?

substances that dissociates itself in solution and forms ions

25

what are ions?

charged particles

26

what does semipermeable mean?

water and small uncharged particles can pass freely

27

what are colloids?

particles that are small enough to form suspension but too large to pass through natural membranes

28

what are the functions of electrolytes

carry electrical current, balance ph levels, necessary for enzyme activity, controls osmosis

29

what are the effects of edema?

Ascites ( abdominal), Pleural effusion (thoarcic)

30

what is dehydration?

loss of fluids in all compartments

31

what are some important electrolytes?

Na+, Cl-, HCO3-, K+, Ca++

32

what is the single most abundant Cation in ECF?

Na+

33

what is the most prevalent extracellular Anion?

Cl-

34

what is the single most abundant Cation in ICF?

K+

35

what is the most abundant mineral on body?

Ca++

36

what is PTH?

Parathyroid hormone; released when there is low Ca++ in body by increasing renal reabsorption of Ca++ and increasing production of calcitriol, increases intestinal absorption of Ca++

37

what is calcitonin?

antagonist of PTH; occurs when there is too much calcium in body, increases deposition of Ca++ in bones

38

what is Hypernatremia?

too much sodium in blood; dehydration (intense thirst, edema, hypertention)

39

what is Hyponatremia?

too little sodium in blood; increase loss of water(dizziness, weakness, headache)

40

what is hypercloremia?

too much Cl- in blood; dehydration (weakness, metabolic acidosis)

41

what is hypochloremia?

too little Cl- in blood; vomitting, overhydration (muscle spasms, hypotention)

42

what is hyperkalemia?

too much K+ in blood; renal failure, excessive intake (vomitting diarrhea)

43

what is hypokalemia?

too little K+ in blood; vomitting, diarrhea (mental confusion, muscle fatigue)

44

what is hypercalcemia?

too much Ca++ in blood; increase PTH, immobilization (weakness, depression)

45

what is hypocalcemia?

too little Ca++ in blood; high loss, low intake (muscle cramo, tingling)