Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology1 > Integumentary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integumentary System Deck (69):
1

What is the general function of this system?

appearance, protection, temperature regulation, water conservation, synthesis (vitamin D), sensory reception

2

how thick, weight and large is this system?

2 sq meters, 1-2mm thick, 10lbs

3

what are the major layers?

epidermis (epithelial tissue) and dermis (connective tissue, nerve and muscle)

4

what is the hypodermis called?

subcutaneous tissue

5

what is the subcutaneous tissue composed of?

adipose, and areolar tissue

6

what are the different cell types that make up the epidermis?

keratinocyte, melanocyte, merkel cell, langerhans cell

7

what does keratinocyte do?

produce keratin and lamellar granules

8

what is keratin?

tough protein (build more and more protein through lifecycle)

9

what is lamellar granules?

secrete lipid rich material, which waterproofs

10

what does melanocytes do?

produce melanin (brown pigment)

11

what does langerhans cell do?

involved in immune response, comes from red bone marrow

12

what does Merkel cells do?

sensation on touch, in deepest later of epidermis

13

what are the epidermis cell layers?

stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

14

what is the stratum basale also called?

stratum germinativum

15

what is the most important layer and why?

stratum basale because it is closest to the blood supply, gets nutrients and oxygen from connective tissue

16

what does germinativum mean?

cell division

17

what happens in the stratum basale?

mix of merkel cells, melanocytes, keratinocytes, stem cells that divid rapidly

18

characteristics of stratum spinosum?

polyhedral cells with spiny projections that bind cells together

19

how thick is the stratum spinosum layer?

8-10 cells thick

20

what does stratum spinosum do?

gives strength and flexibility to skin, take in melanin from melanocytes

21

how does stratum spinosum get melanin from melanocytes?

by phagocytosis

22

how thick is the stratum granulosum layer?

3-5 cells thick

23

what is stratum granulosum composed of?

dying, flattened keratinocytes undergoing poptosis

24

what does stratum granulosum composed of?

dark staining keratinohyalin granules and lamellar granules

25

why is stratum granulosum important?

because it protects other layers

26

what is unique about stratum lucidum?

seen only in thick skin of palms of hands of soles of feet

27

how thick is the stratum lucidum?

3-5 layers of clear, dead, flat keratinocytes

28

what is stratum lucidum composed of?

large amount of keratin, and thickend plasma membranes

29

how thick is the stratum corneum?

25-30 layers thick

30

what is stratum corneum composed of?

flat, dead cells filled with keratin surrounded by lipids

31

what are the characteristics of stratum corneum?

continuously sheds, protects underlying tissues from light, heat, water, chemicals, bacteria

32

describe the keratinization and growth of epidermis

stems cells divide - keratinocytes fill with keratin - contents within cells starts to break down

33

how long does thekeratinization and growth of epidermis take?

4 weeks

34

what is the keratinization and growth of epidermis accelerated by?

EGF - epidermal growth factor

35

what protects keratinocytes?

melanocyte ( protects against mutation= cancer)

36

what is melanocytes stimulated by?

uv light, hormones(ACTH)

37

what does melanocytes do?

inject the protein melanin into surrounding epidermal calls

38

what is skin colour determined by?

genetics - abundance of melanocytes, colour of melanin, ability to break down melanin

39

what is skin colour affected by?

exposure to uv light, blood flow to skin, blood oxygen saturation, presence of abnormal pigment

40

what is the dermis composed of?

collagen, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, connective tissue, macrophages, fat cells, hair follicles, glands, nerves, blood vessle

41

what are the regions of the dermis?

papillary, reticular

42

what is the papillary composed of?

loose connective tissue, elastic fibers

43

what is the top layer of the dermis composed of?

dermal papillae (finger-like)

44

what does the papillae do?

feeds with capillaries and anchors to epidermis

45

what is the reticular layer of the dermis composed of?

dense irregular connective tissue, collagen and elastic fibers

46

what accessories are found in the dermis?

epidermal derivatives, hair, sweat glands, oil glands, nails

47

tell me about the hair shaft?

distributed over most of skin to provide limited protection

48

what are the parts of the hair?

hair shaft, hair bulb, hair follicle

49

what is connected to the hair shaft?

arrector pili (piloerector) muscle

50

what does the arrector pili muscle do?

pulls hair upright

51

what does the hair bulb do?

secretes protein and sheds cells

52

what does the hair follicle do?

protects from dermis

53

what is the hair follicle?

tubular epithelial sheath

54

what is the sensory receptors responsible for feeling?

touch, pain, temperature and pressure

55

what are the glands found in the dermis?

sebaceous (oil), sudiferous (sweat), ceruminous (wax), mammary (milk)

56

what does sebaceous glands do?

secrete sebum into hair shaft

57

what is sebum a combination of?

cholestreol, protein, fats and salts

58

what is sudiferous glands composed of?

eccrine glands and apocrine glands

59

what does eccrine glands do?

regulate body temperature

60

where is eccrine glands located?

most areas of skin

61

where is apocrine glands located?

armpit and pubic region

62

what does ceruminous glands do?

secrete cerumin

63

what does cerumin do?

helps forms barrier against foreign material

64

what are nails?

tightly packed dead keratinized cells

65

why is nail body pink?

due to capillaries

66

what is a cuticle?

stratum corneum

67

what is eponychium

cuticle

68

what is the lunula?

white area of nail body

69

why does the lunula look white?

thickened stratum basale