Flashcards in sensory, motor and integrative systems Deck (48):
what is the difference between sensation and perception?
sensation - conscious and unconscious awareness of any stimuli and perception is conscious awareness of interpretation of the meaning of the sensation
sensory modalities are?
each receptor responds to only one kind of stimuli
general senses include?
touch, vibration, temperature, pain
proprioceptors are located in?
muscles and joints
specialized senses include?
taste, smell, vision, hearing, light, equilibrium
receptors of specialized organs responds to..
specific stimuli and are located in head
what are the structures of general receptors?
free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, separate sensory cells
what is free nerve ending?
bare dendrites - light touch, tickle, pain, temperature, itch
what are encapsulated nerve endings?
dendrites enclosed in connective tissue - pressure, deep touch, vibration
what is separate sensory cells?
specialized cells that respond to stimuli - vision, taste, hearing, balance (involves 2 separate cells)
what are the classification of general receptors by location?
exteroreceptor, interoreceptor, proprioceptors
near surface, receives external stimuli; hearing, vision, touch, taste etc.
monitor internal environment usually unconscious unless pain or pressure
in muscles, tendons, joint and inner ear; senses body's position and movement
what are the classification of general receptors by the nature of stimulus detected?
mechanoreceptors (pressure/touch), thermorecptors (temperature), Nociceptors (tissue damage), photoreceptors (light/vision), chemoreceptors (specific molecules; taste, smell, ph change
what is sensory adaptation?
less sensory to sustained stimulation
smell, pressure touch adaptation is?
pain, body position adaptation is?
what are the somatic tactile sensations?
1. touch 2. pressure 3. vibration 4. itch 5. tickle
what is touch tactile sensations?
crude touch, discriminative touch
what is pressure tactile sensations?
sustained sensation over a large area
what is vibration tactile sensations?
rapid, repetitive sensory signal
what is itch tactile sensations?
chemical irritation of free nerve endings
what is tickle tactile sensations?
stimulation of free nerve endings
what is the temperature of cold receptors?
10 - 40
what is the temperature of warm receptors?
32 - 48
what is nociceptors?
pain receptors, free nerve endings in all tissue except for brain
what are the types of pain?
chronic (slow-superficial and deep tissue) and acute (fast-supervisial only)
what are the locations of pain?
1. superficial somatic pain(skin) 2. deep somatic pain (muscles, joint, tendons) 3. visceral pain (visceral organs)
what are joint receptors?
raffini - pressure, pacinian - vibration
what are the sensory pathways?
first order sensory neuron, second order sensory neuron, third order sensory neuron
what is the first order sensory neuron responsible for?
receiving info from peripheral skin, joints, muscle and spinal cord, cell bodies in DRG -> brings in info into CNS
what is the second order sensory neuron responsible for?
cell body in grey matter horn of spinal cord, carries into to thalamus
what is the third order sensory neuron responsible for?
cell body in thalamus, carries into to primary sensory area
where does the posterior column sensory pathway cross and go?
!. gets info from peripheral (skin, muscle, joint) brings into CNS 2. second order neuron crosses in medulla before travelling ipsilaterally to thalamus
what are the two types of spinothalamus sensory tract pathway?
1. lateral 2. anterior
what is significant about lateral spinothalamic tract?
in lateral funiculus - pain, temperature
what is significant about anterior spinothalamic tract?
in anterior funiculus - crude touch, itch, tickle, bowel/bladder fullness, sexual sensation
what are neurons called in the sensory pathway?
what are neurons called in the motor pathways?
upper/lower motor neurons
what are upper motor neurons?
located in brain, cell bodies in brain in primary motor cortex extends to venral horn to LOWER MOTOR NEURONs
what are lower motor neurons?
they are peripheral neurons with cell bodies in ventral horn, which extends to effectors
if motor tract does not call in medulla it is called?
anterior corticospinal tract 10% - neck and trunk movement (ipsilaterally)
if motor tract crosses in medulla it is called?
lateral corticospinal tract 90% - precise, skill movement (contralaterally)
spastic paralysis is when...
there is damage in UMN, increases muscle tone, reflex still in tack , no voluntary movement - decreased muscle tone
flaccid paralysis is when..
there is damage in LMN, no voluntary movement or reflexes
damage to basal nuclei brings...