sensory, motor and integrative systems Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology1 > sensory, motor and integrative systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in sensory, motor and integrative systems Deck (48):
1

what is the difference between sensation and perception?

sensation - conscious and unconscious awareness of any stimuli and perception is conscious awareness of interpretation of the meaning of the sensation

2

sensory modalities are?

each receptor responds to only one kind of stimuli

3

general senses include?

touch, vibration, temperature, pain

4

proprioceptors are located in?

muscles and joints

5

specialized senses include?

taste, smell, vision, hearing, light, equilibrium

6

receptors of specialized organs responds to..

specific stimuli and are located in head

7

what are the structures of general receptors?

free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, separate sensory cells

8

what is free nerve ending?

bare dendrites - light touch, tickle, pain, temperature, itch

9

what are encapsulated nerve endings?

dendrites enclosed in connective tissue - pressure, deep touch, vibration

10

what is separate sensory cells?

specialized cells that respond to stimuli - vision, taste, hearing, balance (involves 2 separate cells)

11

what are the classification of general receptors by location?

exteroreceptor, interoreceptor, proprioceptors

12

exteroreceptors is?

near surface, receives external stimuli; hearing, vision, touch, taste etc.

13

interoreceptor is?

monitor internal environment usually unconscious unless pain or pressure

14

proprioceptors is?

in muscles, tendons, joint and inner ear; senses body's position and movement

15

what are the classification of general receptors by the nature of stimulus detected?

mechanoreceptors (pressure/touch), thermorecptors (temperature), Nociceptors (tissue damage), photoreceptors (light/vision), chemoreceptors (specific molecules; taste, smell, ph change

16

what is sensory adaptation?

less sensory to sustained stimulation

17

smell, pressure touch adaptation is?

fast

18

pain, body position adaptation is?

slow

19

what are the somatic tactile sensations?

1. touch 2. pressure 3. vibration 4. itch 5. tickle

20

what is touch tactile sensations?

crude touch, discriminative touch

21

what is pressure tactile sensations?

sustained sensation over a large area

22

what is vibration tactile sensations?

rapid, repetitive sensory signal

23

what is itch tactile sensations?

chemical irritation of free nerve endings

24

what is tickle tactile sensations?

stimulation of free nerve endings

25

what is the temperature of cold receptors?

10 - 40

26

what is the temperature of warm receptors?

32 - 48

27

what is nociceptors?

pain receptors, free nerve endings in all tissue except for brain

28

what are the types of pain?

chronic (slow-superficial and deep tissue) and acute (fast-supervisial only)

29

what are the locations of pain?

1. superficial somatic pain(skin) 2. deep somatic pain (muscles, joint, tendons) 3. visceral pain (visceral organs)

30

what are joint receptors?

raffini - pressure, pacinian - vibration

31

what are the sensory pathways?

first order sensory neuron, second order sensory neuron, third order sensory neuron

32

what is the first order sensory neuron responsible for?

receiving info from peripheral skin, joints, muscle and spinal cord, cell bodies in DRG -> brings in info into CNS

33

what is the second order sensory neuron responsible for?

cell body in grey matter horn of spinal cord, carries into to thalamus

34

what is the third order sensory neuron responsible for?

cell body in thalamus, carries into to primary sensory area

35

where does the posterior column sensory pathway cross and go?

!. gets info from peripheral (skin, muscle, joint) brings into CNS 2. second order neuron crosses in medulla before travelling ipsilaterally to thalamus

36

what are the two types of spinothalamus sensory tract pathway?

1. lateral 2. anterior

37

what is significant about lateral spinothalamic tract?

in lateral funiculus - pain, temperature

38

what is significant about anterior spinothalamic tract?

in anterior funiculus - crude touch, itch, tickle, bowel/bladder fullness, sexual sensation

39

what are neurons called in the sensory pathway?

order neurons

40

what are neurons called in the motor pathways?

upper/lower motor neurons

41

what are upper motor neurons?

located in brain, cell bodies in brain in primary motor cortex extends to venral horn to LOWER MOTOR NEURONs

42

what are lower motor neurons?

they are peripheral neurons with cell bodies in ventral horn, which extends to effectors

43

if motor tract does not call in medulla it is called?

anterior corticospinal tract 10% - neck and trunk movement (ipsilaterally)

44

if motor tract crosses in medulla it is called?

lateral corticospinal tract 90% - precise, skill movement (contralaterally)

45

spastic paralysis is when...

there is damage in UMN, increases muscle tone, reflex still in tack , no voluntary movement - decreased muscle tone

46

flaccid paralysis is when..

there is damage in LMN, no voluntary movement or reflexes

47

damage to basal nuclei brings...

tremors, twitching

48

cerebellum monitors what type o movement?

intentional movement - what the brain wants the body to do and compares what the body is actually doing = sends corrective signals to motor cortex