The brain and cranial nerves Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology1 > The brain and cranial nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in The brain and cranial nerves Deck (76):
1

what is the brain important for?

emotions, memory, decision making, movement, sensation

2

the brain communicates via

spinal cord and 12 pr. of cranial nerves

3

what is the main parts of the brain?

1. cerebellum 2. cerebrum 3. brainstem 4. diecephalon

4

what are the ventricles of the brain and its location

lateral ventricles (one in each cerebral hemisphere) third ventricle (medial to thalamus) fourth ventricle (between brain stem and cerebellum)

5

blood supply to brain branches from?

circle of willis

6

how much % of body weight is the brain?

2% and consumes 20% of oxygen and glucose **blood flow to brain higher during neural activity**

7

what are the protective coverings of the brain

1. bone 2. CSF 3. meninges 4. dural partitions

8

what are dural partitions?

extensions of dura in deel fissures of the brain

9

what are the names of dural partitions in brian?

falx cerebri, falx cerebelli and tentorium cerebelli

10

what is blood-brain barrier?

brain capillary endothelial cells joined by tight junctions, continuous membrane, processes of astrocytes

11

what is the purpose of the blood-brain barrier?

prevent toxins and pathogens from getting to brain

12

what can cross BBB?

anesthetic, alcohol and glucose

13

what cannot cross BBB?

proteins, antibiotics

14

what is CSF?

colourless clear liquid that floats the brain and slows down movement, 80-150ml fills ventricles and surrounds CNS

15

what is the purpose of CSF?

protect brain, spin, transport nutrients and metabolic waste, provides stable chemical environment

16

what is the origin of CSF?

secreted from choroid plexuses, which are capillaries in ventricle walls that are covered by ependymal cells

17

what is the flow of CSF?

choroid plexuses - lateral ventricles - inter-ventricular foramen - third ventricle - cerebral aqueduct - fourth ventricle - sub arachnoid space

18

how is the CSF reabsorbed?

dural veneous sinus - arachnoid villi - sagittal sinus - transverse sinus - Jugular vein

19

what is the medulla oblongata?

continuation of spinal cord

20

what does the medulla oblongata contain?

ascending and descending tracts, pathways to and from cerebellum and nuclei of 5 spinal nerves

21

what is the medulla oblongata vital centre for?

cardiac center (force/rate of heart beat), vasomotor center (blood pressure), respiratory center (rate/depth of breathing)

22

what is the medulla oblongata also the center for?

coughing, sneezing, vomitting, swallowing, sweating, hiccuping

23

what is Pons?

bridge between midbrain and medulla, Cranial Nerve 5-7 come from

24

what is Pons responsible for?

controlling patterns of breathing

25

where is the midbrain located?

between Pons and diencephalon, cranial nerve 3 and 4 come from

26

what is the midbrain responsible for>?

co-ordination of muscle movement, visual and auditory reflexes

27

what is the reticular formation?

diffused network of neurons in brain stem that helps regulate muscle tones

28

what is RAS and what does it do?

Reticular Activation System = regulates levels of consciuosness=== filters sensory info except for smell before it goes to thalamus, can be turned off and on by cerebrum. turned off at night to cut off from world only auditory info in and is decided if important or not by cerebrum

29

what does the cerebellum do?

automatic process center, compares motor commands with proprioceptors, maintains posture, muscle tone and balance, processes smooth, co-ordinated movement.

30

what is cerebellum peduncles?

attached cerebellum to brainstem

31

what are the parts of cerebellum peduncles?

superior cerebellum peduncles, middle cerebellum peduncles, inferior cerebellum peduncles

32

what is superior cerebellum peduncles responsible for?

involuntary movement to midbrain

33

what is middle cerebellum peduncles responsible for?

voluntary movement to pons

34

what is inferior cerebellum peduncles responsible for?

balance sensory info from midbrain

35

diencephalon contains...

thalamus and hypothalamus

36

significance about thalamus

forms lateral walls of ventricles, relays all sensory info except smell

37

where does thalamus get info from?

brainstem, spinal cord, cerebellum and basal nuclei

38

significance about hypothalamus

controls ANS, endocrine system and homeostasis

39

what does the hypothalamus control?

food intake, sexual responses, emotions (agression, rage, pain pleasure), sleep patterns, water and electrolyte balance, body temperature, heart rate, hormone secretion, sexual responses

40

folds on bain called?

gyrus

41

shallow grooves of brain called?

sulcus

42

deep grooves of brain called?

fissures

43

the division of the 2 hemispheres is called?

longitudinal fissure

44

what is at the end of lateral fissure?

INSULA

45

what is corpus callosum?

bundle of white matter connecting the 2 hemispheres

46

what is basal nuclei?

bundle of grey matter in cerebrum

47

what are the 3 cerebral tracts?

commissural, projection, association cerebral nuclei, limbic system

48

what is commissural tract?

connection between hemispheres

49

what is projection tract?

afferent fibers up to cerebral cortex or efferent fibers down from cerebral cortex

50

what is association tract?

connection of regions within a single hemisphere

51

what is cerebral nuclei?

input from entire cerebral cortex, regulates muscle tone , involved in automatic movement and cognition (thought)

52

what is the limbic system composed of?

amygdala and hippocampus

53

what is the limbic system?

controls emotional aspect of behaviour, links conscious intellect from cerebrum with unconscious automatic functions of midbrain

54

limbic system is involved with?

memory storage and recall

55

what is the primary motor area?

pre-central gyrus, controls voluntary motor movement of skeletal muscles; somatotopically organized

56

what does somatotopically organization mean?

each area of cerebral cortex corresponds to a specific area of the body

57

what is the distribution of the somatotopical organization of primary motor area?

amount of cortex is devoted to body parts that are proportionate to precise motor control = more to hands and face than to legs, arm, torso

58

what is the premotor area significant for?

learned, repetitive motor skills eg. driving car or signing name

59

what is the Broca's area?

frontal lobe near lateral sulcus mostly in left hemisphere, controls motors used in speech

60

pre frontal area is located

most anterior area in frontal lobe

61

prefrontal area is responsible for?

intellect, personality, conscious, abstract ideas, motivation, planning, goals, abstract ideas, judgement

62

where is olfactory area and what is it significant for?

medial temporal, inferior to frontal lobe, input from olfactory receptors, sensory area of brain

63

what is the primary sensory area?

area of brain where sensory info from skin and muscles proprioception is inputted located post central gyrus in parietal lobe

64

what is the distribution of the sensory function?

area proportional to sensitivity; somatotopically organized

65

where is the somatosensory association area and what is it significant for?

post primary sensory area, interpreting sensory info from past experiences

66

what is the gustatory area and where is it located?

tongue area of somatosensory cortex, receives sensory input from taste buds

67

what is primary auditory area?

receives impulses from ear, hearing

68

what is the auditory association area?

interprets auditory info; determines if noise, speech or music

69

what is Wernicke's area?

usually in left hemisphere, where language both written and spoken is understood

70

what is language association area?

verbal expression of emotion (tone), detection of emotion in speech

71

when language goes wrong it is called

aphasia

72

non-fluent aphasia is?

when you know what you want to say but you cannot form the words - brocas

73

fluent aphasia is?

when you can speak but connections dont make sense - wernickes

74

primary visual area?

impulses from eye

75

visual association area?

adjacent primary visual area, interprets visual input

76

what hemispheric lateralization?

inequality in hemisphere; 90% of pop, left dominates = math, reasoning, language