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Flashcards in The Spine Deck (33):
1

what are the three functions of the spinal cord?

sensory in from body to brain, motor from brain to body and controls reflexes

2

what is the spinal cord protected by?

meninges

3

what are meninges?

membranes that cover the spinal cord and brain

4

what are the layers of meninges?

Dura mater (leather like), subdural space filled with interstitial fluid, Arachnoid mater, subarachnoid space filled with CSF, pia mater (thin layer lining)

5

spinal cord in new born is from?

magnum foramen to L4

6

spinal cord in adult is from?

magnum foramen to L1

7

spinal nerve is composed of what two roots?

dorsal - sensory and ventral - motor

8

dorsal root gangion are composed of?

cell bodies of sensory neurons

9

what are the sensory tracts in the spinal cord?

1. dorsal columns 2. spinothalamic tracts 3. spinocerebellar tracts

10

what is the dorsal column responsible for?

proprioception, vibration, pressure, two point discriminative, discriminative touch

11

what is the spinothalamic responsible for?

temperature, pain, deep pressure, crude touch

12

what is the spinocerebellar responsible for?

unconscious proprioception

13

what are the motor tracts in the spinal cord?

direct (pyramidal) pathway and indirect (extrapyramidal) pathway

14

what is direct (pyramidal) tract responsible for?

precise, voluntary movement

15

what is indirect (extrapyramidal) pathways responsible for?

programmed/automatic movement

16

what are intergrating centres?

found in CNS where sensory impulses are relayed to motor neurons

17

what are flexes?

automatice responses to environmental change

18

what type of reflexes are there?

stretch, tendon, cross extensor and flexor reflex

19

what is stretch reflex?

mono synaptic reflex, to prevent over stretching

20

what is tendon reflex?

when tendon stretches, muscle relaxes and antagonistic muscle contracts

21

what is flexor reflex?

pain signal activates motor fibre and muscle group pulls away from pain

22

what is cross extensor reflex?

occurs with flexor reflex, after limb pulls away, contralateral limb comes in place to maintain balance

23

spinal nerves is branched from?

the spinal cord through intervertebral foramina

24

how many pairs of spinal nerves are there?

31 pairs

25

how many spinal nerves are there is each category?

cervical 8, thoracic 12, lumbar 5, sacral 5, coccygeal 1

26

what are plexus?

network of nerves

27

what are the plexus of the body?

cervical (phrenic), brachial (ulnar, median, radial), lumbar (femoral), sacral (sciatic)

28

significance of Cervical plexus

ventral rami of c1-c5, skin and muscles of head, neck and superior shoulders and chest - phrenic nerve *phrenic nerve*

29

significance of Brachial plexus

ventral rami of c5 - T1, shoulders and upper limbs, roots from superior, middle and inferior trunk *ulnar, medial, radial nerve*

30

significance of lumbar plexus

L1-L4, innervates abdominal wall, external genitals and anterior-medial thigh *femoral nerve*

31

significance of sacral plexus

L4-S4, innervates buttocks, perineum and part of lower limb *sciatic nerve*

32

what are dermatones?

area of skin that is supplied by 1 nerve, overlapping prevents loss of sensation if 1 nerve damage

33

to induce local anesthetics

3 nerves needs to be blocked