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Flashcards in Histology Deck (28):
1

When the kidney is acting as an endocrine gland, what does it produce?

Renin
Erythropoietin

2

What is the renal hilum?

Site of entry of renal artery and exit of renal vein and ureter

3

What are the two major zones to the kidney?

Cortex
Medulla

4

What is the orientation of the medullary pyramids?

Apices point towards the hilum

5

What is the components of the nephron?

Renal corpuscle
Renal tubules

6

What name is given to the capillaries which form the renal corpuscle?

Glomerulus

7

What is the Bowman's capsule?

Layer of cells that hold the knot of capillaries and allow diffusion

8

What cell makes up the Bowman's capsule?

Squamous epithelium

9

What supplies the glomerulus with blood?

Afferent arteriole

10

Which two cell layers separate the blood from glomerular filtrate?

Capillary endothelium
Podocytes

11

What lies between the layers of capillary endothelium and the podocytes?

Basal lamina made up of glycosaminoglycans

12

What are mesangial cells?

They form the core of connective tissue of the glomerulus

13

Why is it important that the epithelium is fenestrated?

So larger proteins can pass from capillary to Bowman's space

14

What type of cell makes up the proximal convoluted tubule?

Simple cuboidal epithelial with substantial microvilli

15

Where is the Loop of Henle?

Medulla

16

What cell makes up the thin loop of Henle ?

Simple squamous

17

What cell makes up the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle?

Simple cuboidal epithelial

18

How is the DCT different from the PCT?

lacks microvilli
DCT is thicker and has smaller luminal space

19

What are medullary rays?

Collecting ducts, straight segments of proximal and distal tubules and gathered together in these parallel bundles

20

What cells make up the collecting ducts?

Columnar epithelium

21

What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Macula densa
Juxtaglomerular cells
Extraglomerular mesangial cells

22

What do the macula densa of the juxtaglomerular apparatus do?

On DCT side, nearest the afferent arteriole.
Sense ion composition in the DCT

23

What do the juxtaglomerular cells do?

These are smooth muscle cells in afferent arteriole.
Secrete renin.

24

What is another name for transitional epithelium?

Urothelium

25

Describe urothelium

Stratified
3-6 layers thick, with varying thickness

26

What cells are present at the luminal surface of the urothelium?

Umbrella cells

27

What kind of cell is the distal urethra lined with?

Stratified squamous

28

What cell makes up the prostate?

Simple columnar secretory epithelium