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Flashcards in Pathology Deck (54):
1

What is renal agenesis?

Absence of one or both kidneys

2

What is the consequence of bilateral renal agenesis inutero?

No foetal urine so reduced amniotic fluid.
Causes a squashed face- Potter's facies

3

What is renal hypoplasia?

Small kidneys.
Still function

4

What are horseshoe kidneys?

Kidneys joined together by inferior pole

5

What is a duplex system?

Either double ureters or double renal pelvis.

6

What is the clinical significance of a simple cyst?

Normally no signficance

7

What kind of cysts evolve in infants?

Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Diease

8

What is the prognosis of ARPKD?

Ultimately early renal failure

9

What does ARPKD cause?

Dilatation of medullary collecting ducts

10

What are many cysts in the adult kidney?

ADominantPKD

11

Which chromosome is most important in ADPKD?

Chromosome 16

12

How does ADPKD present?

Haematuria
HTN
Chronic renal failure
Palpable kidneys- massive enlargement

13

What brain issue does ADPKD have links with?

Berry aneurysms in circle of Willis which leads to subarachnoid haemorrhage

14

What benign tumour of kidney presents in the medulla?

Fibroma

15

What benign tumour of kidney presents in the cortex?

Adenoma

16

What colour in a renal adenoma?

Yellow

17

What condition is angiomyolipoma associated with?

Tuberous Sclerosis

18

What will a juxtoglomerular cell tumour result in?

Secondary HTN

19

What is the most common malignant tumour in children?

Nephroblastoma.

20

What is the most common malignant tumour in adults in the kidney?

Renal Cell Carcinoma

21

How does a renal cell carcinoma present?

Flank pain
Abdo mass
Haematuria

22

Who is renal cell carcinoma more common in?

60 yr old men

23

Why does renal cell carcinoma cause a raised RBC count?

Erythropoietic stimulating substance is high

24

Where is a renal cell carcinoma most commonly found?

Cortex

25

In what way can renal cell carcinoma spread?

Through to vena cava
Haematogenous metastasis.

26

Where is a transitional cell carcinoma most common?

From renal pelvis to urethra, including bladder

27

What is a major risk for bladder cancer?

Dyes
Rubber
Smoking

28

What is the most common cancer of the penis?

Squamous carcinoma in situ
(Bowen's)

29

When SCC of penis looks velvety what is it called?

Erythroplasia of Queyrat

30

Does SCC of penis spread?

Not usually.
Full thickness dysplasia

31

True or False
SCC of penis occurs mostly in circumcised men

False.
Uncircumcised men

32

What virus is penile SCC associated with?

HPV

33

What does a penile SCC look like?

Ulcerating indurated ulcer or exophytic

34

In which profession is SCC of scrotum associated?

Chimneysweeps

35

What is the aetiology of benign nodular hyperplasia of prostate?

Lower testosterone compared to normal oestrogen.
Testosterone lower through age.

36

Which part of the prostate gland is most affected by BNH?

Central gland

37

What is prostatism?

Symptoms to include overflow incontinence, poor stream or hesitancy

38

What are some complications of BNH?

Bladder hypertrophy
Diverticula of bladder wall

39

What is the treatment for BNH?

Alpha blockers
5 alpha reductase inhibitors

40

True or False
BNH causes prostate carcinoma

False!

41

At what age is prostatic cancer more common?

60+

42

In what part of the prostate is carcinoma normally found?

Peripheral ducts
Espec. posterior lobe

43

Is there a genetic link to prostate cancer?

Yes.
More likely if 1st degree relative is affected at young age

44

How does prostate cancer spread?

Locally
Lymphatically
Haematogenous

45

Does prostate cancer spread easily?

Yes!
Most have advanced disease at presentation

46

What tests should be requested for ?prostate cancer?

PR
PSA
Biopsy

47

Why are bone scans important in prostate cancer?

Spreads to bone easily.
Osteosclerotic- white on x-ray

48

How can early prostate cancer be treated?

Anti-androgens or oestrogens

49

What can be a risk factor for testicular cancer?

Testicular maldescent.

50

How does testicular cancer present?

Painless testicular enlargement
Gynaecomastia

51

What class of tumour are seminomas and teratomas in?

Germ cell tumours

52

In who are seminomas common in?

30-50 years of age.

53

What is the definition of a teratoma?

Tumour at a site where the tissues should not be present

54

What marker is used in seminoma?

PLAP
Placental alk phos.