Flashcards in Pathology Deck (54):
What is renal agenesis?
Absence of one or both kidneys
What is the consequence of bilateral renal agenesis inutero?
No foetal urine so reduced amniotic fluid.
Causes a squashed face- Potter's facies
What is renal hypoplasia?
What are horseshoe kidneys?
Kidneys joined together by inferior pole
What is a duplex system?
Either double ureters or double renal pelvis.
What is the clinical significance of a simple cyst?
Normally no signficance
What kind of cysts evolve in infants?
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Diease
What is the prognosis of ARPKD?
Ultimately early renal failure
What does ARPKD cause?
Dilatation of medullary collecting ducts
What are many cysts in the adult kidney?
Which chromosome is most important in ADPKD?
How does ADPKD present?
Chronic renal failure
Palpable kidneys- massive enlargement
What brain issue does ADPKD have links with?
Berry aneurysms in circle of Willis which leads to subarachnoid haemorrhage
What benign tumour of kidney presents in the medulla?
What benign tumour of kidney presents in the cortex?
What colour in a renal adenoma?
What condition is angiomyolipoma associated with?
What will a juxtoglomerular cell tumour result in?
What is the most common malignant tumour in children?
What is the most common malignant tumour in adults in the kidney?
Renal Cell Carcinoma
How does a renal cell carcinoma present?
Who is renal cell carcinoma more common in?
60 yr old men
Why does renal cell carcinoma cause a raised RBC count?
Erythropoietic stimulating substance is high
Where is a renal cell carcinoma most commonly found?
In what way can renal cell carcinoma spread?
Through to vena cava
Where is a transitional cell carcinoma most common?
From renal pelvis to urethra, including bladder
What is a major risk for bladder cancer?
What is the most common cancer of the penis?
Squamous carcinoma in situ
When SCC of penis looks velvety what is it called?
Erythroplasia of Queyrat
Does SCC of penis spread?
Full thickness dysplasia
True or False
SCC of penis occurs mostly in circumcised men
What virus is penile SCC associated with?
What does a penile SCC look like?
Ulcerating indurated ulcer or exophytic
In which profession is SCC of scrotum associated?
What is the aetiology of benign nodular hyperplasia of prostate?
Lower testosterone compared to normal oestrogen.
Testosterone lower through age.
Which part of the prostate gland is most affected by BNH?
What is prostatism?
Symptoms to include overflow incontinence, poor stream or hesitancy
What are some complications of BNH?
Diverticula of bladder wall
What is the treatment for BNH?
5 alpha reductase inhibitors
True or False
BNH causes prostate carcinoma
At what age is prostatic cancer more common?
In what part of the prostate is carcinoma normally found?
Espec. posterior lobe
Is there a genetic link to prostate cancer?
More likely if 1st degree relative is affected at young age
How does prostate cancer spread?
Does prostate cancer spread easily?
Most have advanced disease at presentation
What tests should be requested for ?prostate cancer?
Why are bone scans important in prostate cancer?
Spreads to bone easily.
Osteosclerotic- white on x-ray
How can early prostate cancer be treated?
Anti-androgens or oestrogens
What can be a risk factor for testicular cancer?
How does testicular cancer present?
Painless testicular enlargement
What class of tumour are seminomas and teratomas in?
Germ cell tumours
In who are seminomas common in?
30-50 years of age.
What is the definition of a teratoma?
Tumour at a site where the tissues should not be present